Study concept and design: Silber, Rosenbaum, Clark, Giantonio, Fox.
Acquisition of data: Silber, Even-Shoshan, Fox.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Silber, Rosenbaum, Clark, Ross, Teng, M. Wang, Niknam, Ludwig, W. Wang, Fox.
Drafting of the manuscript: Silber, Rosenbaum, Clark, Ross.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Silber, Rosenbaum, Clark, Giantonio, Teng, M. Wang, Niknam, Ludwig, W. Wang, Even-Shoshan, Fox.
Statistical analysis: Silber, Rosenbaum, Ross, Teng, Ludwig, W. Wang.
Obtained funding: Silber, Rosenbaum, Even-Shoshan.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Clark, M. Wang, Niknam, Even-Shoshan.
Study supervision: Silber, Rosenbaum, Even-Shoshan, Fox.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was funded through a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Department of Health and Human Services (R01 HS 018355), and by the US National Science Foundation (NSF SBS 1260782). This study used the linked SEER-Medicare database.
Role of the Sponsor: The AHRQ and the US National Science Foundation had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions of this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the AHRQ.
Additional Contributions: We thank Traci Frank, AA, Hong Zhou, MS, Philip Saynisch, BA, and Alexander Hill, BS (Center for Outcomes Research, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), for their assistance with this research. None of these individuals received compensation apart from salary for their contributions. We also acknowledge the efforts of the Applied Research Program, National Cancer Institute; the Office of Research, Development and Information, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; Information Management Services Inc; and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database.