AuthorContributions: Drs Nishihara and Chan had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Nishihara, Lochhead, Kuchiba, and Jung contributed equally. Drs Chan and Ogino contributed equally.
Study concept and design: Giovannucci, Fuchs, Chan, Ogino.
Acquisition of data: Nishihara, Lochhead, Kuchiba, Jung, Yamauchi, Liao, Imamura, Qian, Morikawa, Wang, Spiegelman, Cho, Giovannucci, Fuchs, Chan, Ogino.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Nishihara, Lochhead, Kuchiba, Jung, Wang, Spiegelman, Cho, Giovannucci, Fuchs, Chan, Ogino.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nishihara, Lochhead, Jung, Imamura, Wang, Cho, Fuchs, Chan, Ogino.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nishihara, Lochhead, Kuchiba, Yamauchi, Liao, Qian, Morikawa, Spiegelman, Cho, Giovannucci, Fuchs, Chan, Ogino.
Statistical analysis: Nishihara, Kuchiba, Jung, Liao, Wang, Spiegelman, Cho, Fuchs, Chan, Ogino.
Obtained funding: Cho, Giovannucci, Fuchs, Chan, Ogino.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lochhead, Jung, Imamura, Qian, Cho, Giovannucci, Fuchs, Chan, Ogino.
Study supervision: Cho, Fuchs, Chan, Ogino.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Chan reported that he has previously served as a consultant for Bayer Healthcare, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer Inc, and Pozen Inc. This study was not funded by Bayer Healthcare, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer Inc, or Pozen Inc. No other conflicts of interest were reported.
Funding/Support:This work was supported by grants P01 CA87969 to Dr Hankinson; P01 CA55075 and UM1 CA167552 to Dr Willett; P50 CA127003 to Dr Fuchs.; R01 CA137178 and K24 DK098311 to Dr Chan; and R01 CA151993 to Dr Ogino from the National Institutes of Health (NIH); the Bennett Family Fund for Targeted Therapies Research; and the National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance. Dr Lochhead is a Scottish Government Clinical Academic Fellow and was supported by a Harvard University Frank Knox Memorial Fellowship. Dr Chan is a Damon Runyon Clinical Investigator.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NIH or the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation.
Additional Contributions: We deeply thank participants of the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who provided us with information through questionnaires, and biological specimens. We are grateful to hospitals and pathology departments throughout the United States for generously providing us with tissue specimens. In addition, we would like to thank the staff of the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study for their valuable contributions, the state cancer registries for their help: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, Wyoming.