Author Contributions: Dr Kullgren had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Kullgren, Duey, Werner.
Acquisition of data: Kullgren, Duey.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kullgren, Werner.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kullgren.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kullgren, Duey, Werner.
Statistical analysis: Kullgren.
Obtained funding: Werner.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kullgren, Duey, Werner.
Study supervision: Werner.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: Support for this work was provided by funding from the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Service and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Dr Werner was supported in part by a Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development career development award.
Role of the Sponsor: Neither the sponsors nor the funders had a role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government.
Additional Contributions: We thank John Ayanian, MD, MPP (Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), for helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. Dr Ayanian did not receive compensation for his contributions.