Published Online: May 21, 2013. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.5023
Author Contributions: Drs Rutishauser and Schindler had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Leuppi and Schuetz contributed equally.
Study concept and design: Leuppi, Schuetz, Bingisser, Briel, Müller, Schindler, Tamm, Rutishauser.
Acquisition of data: Leuppi, Schuetz, Bingisser, Bodmer, Briel, Drescher, Duerring, Henzen, Leibbrandt, Maier, Miedinger, Scherr, Stoeckli, Viatte, von Garnier, Tamm, Rutishauser.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Leuppi, Schuetz, Bingisser, Briel, Leibbrandt, Schindler, Viatte, Tamm, Rutishauser.
Drafting of the manuscript: Leuppi, Schuetz, Bodmer, Müller, Schindler, Rutishauser.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Schuetz, Bingisser, Bodmer, Briel, Drescher, Duerring, Henzen, Leibbrandt, Maier, Miedinger, Müller, Scherr, Schindler, Stoeckli, Viatte, von Garnier, Tamm, Rutishauser.
Statistical analysis: Schuetz, Briel, Schindler.
Obtained funding: Leuppi, Schuetz, Bingisser, Henzen, Rutishauser.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Leuppi, Bingisser, Drescher, Duerring, Leibbrandt, Maier, Scherr, Stoeckli, Tamm, Rutishauser.
Study supervision: Leuppi, Bingisser, Briel, Henzen, Leibbrandt, Müller, Tamm, Rutishauser.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Leuppi reported receiving grants from Freie Akademische Gesellschaft, Gottfried und Julia Bangerter-Rhyner-Stiftung, AstraZeneca, and the Clinic for Internal Medicine at the University Hospital Basel; serving as board member of Merck Sharp & Dohme Chibret, Nycomed, and Novartis; consulting for Merck Sharp & Dohme Chibret; pending grants with Boehringer Ingelheim and AstraZeneca; payment for lectures from Boehringer Ingelheim, Merck Sharp & Dohme Chibret, Nycomed, and Pharmaxis; and receiving payment for developing educational presentations for AstraZeneca. Dr Schuetz reported receiving consulting and lecture fees from Thermo Fisher Scientific and bioMerieux. Dr Bingisser reported being a board member for Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, Merck Sharp & Dohme Chibret, GE, Phillipps, and sanofi-aventis; receiving grants from Bayer, Pfizer, and Brahms; payment for lectures from AstraZeneca; and patents pending with Brahms. Dr Rutishauser reported receiving grants from the Department of Medicine at the University Hospital of Basel, the Clinic of Internal Medicine at the Hospital Center of Biel-Bienne, Freiwillige Akademische Gesellschaft, Fonds für Lehre und Forschung, AstraZeneca, Viollier Laboratories, and Gottfried und Julia Bangerter-Rhyner-Stiftung; serving as board member for the Swiss Society of General Internal Medicine; employment with the Hospital Center of Biel-Bienne; grants pending from the Swiss National Science Foundation; and payment for lectures in various Swiss hospitals. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The REDUCE trial was an investigator-initiated study supported by the Department of Medicine, University Hospital Basel; the Clinic of Internal Medicine, Hospital Center of Biel-Bienne; Freie Akademische Gesellschaft; Fonds für Lehre und Forschung; AstraZeneca; Viollier Laboratory; Gottfried und Julia Bangerter-Rhyner-Stiftung für Medizinische Forschung.
Role of the Sponsor: None of the sponsors had any role in design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
The REDUCE Study Group Collaborators: Sandrina Bervini, MD, Konstantin Burgmann, MD, Linh Dang, MD, Silvia Ernst, MD, Sandra Fatio, MD, Michael Grob, MD, Harold Köndgen, MD, Anne-Chantal Lambert, MD, Susanne Nüesch, MD, Philipp Oswald, MD, Madeleine Rothen, MD, Jörg Salomon, MD, Julian Schardt, MD, Michael Schärer, MD, Lucien Weiss, MD (Department of Medicine, Clinic of Internal Medicine, Hospital Center of Biel-Bienne).
Online-Only Material: The Author Audio Interview is
Additional Contributions: We thank Jürgen Drewe, MD, and Simon Spitzmüller, MD (University Hospital Basel), for programming and testing the randomization code. We are grateful to Ursula Schild, RN, Katharina Regez, RN, Vreni Wyss, RN, (University Hospital Basel), Monika Wüthrich, RN (University Hospital Bern), and Gaby Fahrni, RN (Kantonsspital Luzern), for expert nursing support. All acknowledged persons received compensations within the scope of their regular employment as physicians or study nurses.