Importance Some pregnant women prefer cesarean delivery and request it without maternal or fetal indication rather than proceeding with a plan for vaginal delivery.
Objective To review approaches for counseling women who ask for cesarean delivery without maternal or fetal indication (known as cesarean delivery on maternal request [CDMR]).
Evidence Review An Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality evidence report of studies published after 1990, a 2006 National Institutes of Health state-of-the-science conference report, and published literature were examined.
Findings The prevalence of CDMR in the United States is not precisely known but probably occurs in less than 3% of all deliveries. Most practicing obstetricians have received requests for CDMR from patients. Compared with a plan for vaginal delivery, CDMR may be associated with lower rates of hemorrhage, maternal incontinence, and rare but serious neonatal outcomes. However, CDMR is associated with a higher risk of neonatal respiratory morbidity. Adverse consequences of CDMR may be manifested only in future pregnancies. Repeated cesarean deliveries have higher rates of operative complications, placental abnormalities such as placenta previa and accreta, and consequent gravid hysterectomy.
Conclusions and Relevance There is no immediate expectation for CDMR to reduce the health risks of mothers or infants. Accordingly, counseling and decisions regarding CDMR should be made after considering a woman's full reproductive plans.
A, With normal placentation, chorionic villi invade to the decidual layer and do not invade the myometrium, allowing placental separation after delivery. B, Abnormalities of trophoblast invasion and placental attachment, generally referred to as placenta accreta, include 3 levels of placental invasion into the uterine wall: accreta—attachment to the myometrium; increta (shown)—attachment within the myometrium; and percreta—invasion through the myometrium and serosa. Areas of placenta where villi are embedded in the myometrial layer are adherent to the uterine wall and fail to separate after delivery. Risk for placenta accreta is increased in areas of uterine scarring, such as from a prior cesarean delivery, and in association with placenta previa because implantation occurs over the cervix and lower uterine segment where the decidual layer is thin.
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Elective Cesarean Delivery on Maternal Request
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Elective Cesarean Delivery on Maternal Request
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