Author Contributions: Dr Lowenthal had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Lowenthal, Ellenberg, Steenhoff, Anabwani, Gross.
Acquisition of data: Lowenthal, Machine, Sagdeo, Boiditswe, Rutstein, Anabwani.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Lowenthal, Ellenberg, Steenhoff, Rutstein, Gross.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lowenthal.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ellenberg, Machine, Sagdeo, Boiditswe, Steenhoff, Rutstein, Anabwani, Gross.
Statistical analysis: Lowenthal, Ellenberg, Gross.
Obtained funding: Lowenthal, Gross.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lowenthal, Machine, Sagdeo, Boiditswe, Steenhoff, Rutstein, Anabwani.
Study supervision: Lowenthal, Steenhoff, Gross.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Lowenthal reported receiving grant support from Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr Ellenberg reported serving on data and safety monitoring boards and mock advisory committees for Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, EMD Serono, and Roche; and receiving grants from the National Institutes of Health. Dr Anabwani reported receiving research support from Boehringer Ingelheim. Dr Gross reported receiving grant support from the National Institutes of Health; serving on a data and safety monitoring board for Pfizer; providing expert testimony to Lewis Saul LLP; receiving payment for lectures from Viral Ed; and receiving honoraria and reimbursement for travel expenses from the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care. No other author reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This study was supported in part by Health Resources and Services Administration grant T32 HP10026 (funding to Dr Lowenthal), funding from Bristol-Myers Squibb (awarded to Dr Lowenthal and provided funding to Drs Lowenthal and Gross), and grant P30 AI 045008 from the Penn Center for AIDS Research (awarded to Dr Gross). Dr Lowenthal is currently receiving research career development support from National Institute of Mental Health grant K23 MH095669.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors of the study had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank Heather Draper, MPH (Baylor International Pediatric AIDS Initiative), for assistance with responding to the initial review of this article; Margaret Tshokonego, MD (Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Centre of Excellence), for data entry support; and Jennifer Chapman, MPH (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia), for verifying the accurate coding and transcription of the data presented. Ms Draper, Dr Tshokonego, and Ms Chapman did not receive financial compensation for their contributions.