Author Contributions: Dr London had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition of data: London, Henderson.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: London.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: London, Hur, Henderson.
Obtained funding: London.
Administrative, technical or material support: London.
Study Supervision: London.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Schwartz reported that institutional grants are pending from Roche, Resverlogix, Anthera, and Sanofi. Dr London reported receiving an unrestricted grant from the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation. No other conflicts of interest were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by a grant from the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation.
Role of the Sponsor: The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation had no role in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, management, analysis and data interpretation, or in the preparation, review or approval of the manuscript. The VASQIP database was provided by VASQIP who collected the data and reviewed and approved the manuscript prior to submission.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States Government.
Additional Contributions: We thank Francesca Cunningham, PharmD, Director of the Department of Veterans Affairs Center for Medication Safety (VAMedSAFE) and Program Manager for Pharmacoepidemiologic and Outcomes Research for VHA-PBM who provided constructive input throughout the design and conduct of this analysis. Dr Cunningham received no financial compensation from this project. We also thank the VA Surgical Quality Data Use Group (SQDUG) for its role as scientific advisors and for the critical review of data use and analysis presented in this article.
This article was corrected for errors on April 23, 2013 and June 11, 2015.