Author Contributions: Drs Maelli and Hsia had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Raven, Lowe, Hsia.
Acquisition of data: Maselli, Hsia.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Raven, Hsia.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Maselli, Hsia.
Obtained funding: Raven, Lowe, Hsia.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hsia.
Study supervision: Hsia.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Lowe has served as a consultant to the American College of Emergency Physicians regarding the appropriate use of emergency departments. Dr Raven has served as a consultant for the United Hospital Fund related to patterns of ED utilization in New York City.
Funding/Support: This publication was supported by the Emergency Medicine Foundation, as well as by grant KL2TR000143 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, through UCSF-Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (Dr Hsia), and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Physician Faculty Scholars (Dr Hsia).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agencies did not participate in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript
Disclaimer: The data presented herein are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of any of the funding agencies.
Additional Contributions: We especially thank John C. Billings, JD, for his thoughtful input, Amy J. Markowitz, JD, for editorial assistance, and Nicole Gordon, BA, for her technical support; none of them received any financial compensation for their contributions.
Online-Only Material: The Author Video Interview is available .