Author Contributions: Dr Martin had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Martin, Kramer, Gillman, Davey Smith, Oken.
Acquisition of data: Martin, Patel, Kramer, Vilchuck, Bogdanovich, Sergeichick, Gusina, Foo, Oken.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Martin, Kramer, Guthrie, Palmer, Rifas-Shiman, Gillman, Oken.
Drafting of the manuscript: Martin, Palmer, Davey Smith.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Martin, Patel, Kramer, Guthrie, Vilchuck, Bogdanovich, Sergeichick, Gusina, Foo, Rifas-Shiman, Gillman, Oken.
Statistical analysis: Martin, Guthrie, Palmer, Rifas-Shiman.
Obtained funding: Martin, Kramer, Gillman, Oken.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Martin, Patel, Guthrie, Vilchuck, Bogdanovich, Sergeichick, Gusina, Oken.
Study supervision: Martin, Kramer, Vilchuck, Bogdanovich, Sergeichick, Gusina, Foo, Davey Smith, Oken.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Martin reports presenting an invited talk for the Nestle Nutrition Institute. Dr Kramer reports receipt of an institutional grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and receipt of unrelated meeting expenses from Nestle Nutrition Institute. Dr Foo reports receipt of a consulting fee support for travel to meetings from the University of Bristol. Ms Guthrie and Drs Gillman and Oken report receipt of an institutional grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr Oken reports presenting an invited talk for Nestle Nutrition Institute and also receipt of travel reimbursement.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants from: the European Union, Early Nutrition Programming Long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials (FOOD-DT-2005-007036); Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MOP-53155); and NIH (R01 HD050758). Dr Oken was supported by US National Institute of Child Health and Development (K24 HD069408). Drs Martin, Palmer, and Davey Smith work within the CAiTE Centre, which is supported by the Medical Research Council (G0600705) and the University of Bristol.
Role of the Sponsors: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We are grateful to the cohort members, their parents and the study pediatricians and auditors who participated so willingly in the study. We acknowledge Jennifer Thompson, MPP, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, for assistance with data analysis. Ms Thompson was not compensated in association with her work on this article.