Author Contributions: Dr Gelbrich had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Edelmann and Wachter contributed equally to the article and share first authorship.
Study concept and design: Edelmann, Wachter, Schmidt, Löffler, Hermann-Lingen, Halle, Hasenfuss, Gelbrich, Pieske.
Acquisition of data: Edelmann, Wachter, Schmidt, Kraigher-Krainer, Colantonio, Kamke, Duvinage, Stahrenberg, Durstewitz, Düngen, Tschöpe, Halle, Pieske.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Edelmann, Wachter, Schmidt, Kraigher-Krainer, Colantonio, Durstewitz, Düngen, Halle, Hasenfuss, Gelbrich, Pieske.
Drafting of the manuscript: Edelmann, Wachter, Löffler, Pieske.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Edelmann, Wachter, Schmidt, Kraigher-Krainer, Colantonio, Kamke, Duvinage, Stahrenberg, Durstewitz, Löffler, Düngen, Tschöpe, Hermann-Lingen, Halle, Gelbrich.
Statistical analysis: Edelmann, Düngen, Gelbrich.
Obtained funding: Edelmann, Löffler, Hermann-Lingen, Halle, Hasenfuss, Gelbrich, Pieske.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Edelmann, Wachter, Kamke, Duvinage, Durstewitz, Halle.
Study supervision: Edelmann, Wachter, Schmidt, Löffler, Tschöpe, Hermann-Lingen, Halle, Hasenfuss, Pieske.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Edelmann reports having been an investigator, consultant, or speaker for Berlin Chemie, Novartis, Pfizer, Servier, Bayer, Gilead, CVRx, Relypsa, Sanofi, and Astra-Zeneca. Dr Wachter reports having been, since 2003, an investigator, consultant, or speaker for Bayer, Berlin Chemie, Boehringer Ingelheim, Boston Scientific, CVRx, Gilead, Johnson & Johnson, Medtronic, Novartis, Pfizer, Relypsa, Sanofi, and Servier. Dr Hermann-Lingen reports receiving speaker's honoraria from Pfizer, Servier, and Berlin-Chemie. He has received royalties from Verlag Hans Huber and Deutscher Ärzteverlag and participates in institutional research cooperation with KKH-Allianz. Dr Halle reports receiving speaker's honoraria from Berlin-Chemie, Merck Sharpe & Dohme, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Sanofi-Aventis and receiving honoraria as board member (Sanofi-Aventis), for expert testimony (Health Insurance Company, TK Germany), and as consultant (BMW). Dr Hasenfuss reports receiving honorarium for presentations from CVRx, Impulse Dynamics, and Servier and serving as a consultant for Novartis and Servier. Dr Gelbrich reports receiving remuneration from Robert Bosch Health Care for board membership. Dr Pieske reports receiving speaker honoraria from Bayer Healthcare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Servier, Medtronic, Bristol-Myers-Squibb, and Menarini and serving as a consultant and/or steering committee member for Bayer Healthcare, Menarini, and Novartis. He participated in research cooperations (institutional) with Bayer Healthcare and Medtronic. No other conflicts of interest were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the German-Austrian Heart Failure Study Group and the German Competence Network of Heart Failure. Aldo-DHF was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research Grant 01GI0205 (clinical trial program Aldo-DHF [FKZ 01KG0506]). The University of Göttingen was the formal sponsor.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsor and supporters of this study had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
A complete list of the Aldo-DHF Investigators appears in the eAppendix.