Author Contributions: Drs Kayentao and ter Kuile had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Kayentao, Garner, ter Kuile.
Acquisition of data: Kayentao, Garner, van Eijk, Naidoo, Roper, Mulokozi, MacArthur, Luntamo, Ashorn, Doumbo, ter Kuile.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kayentao, Garner, van Eijk.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kayentao, Garner, ter Kuile.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kayentao, Garner, van Eijk, Naidoo, Roper, Mulokozi, MacArthur, Luntamo, Ashorn, Doumbo, ter Kuile.
Statistical analysis: Kayentao, Garner, ter Kuile.
Obtained funding: MacArthur, ter Kuile.
Administrative, technical, or material support: van Eijk, MacArthur, Doumbo, ter Kuile.
Study supervision: Garner, ter Kuile.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr ter Kuile reports receiving reimbursement for meeting presentation expenses from Pfizer. Drs Luntamo and Ashorn report institutional support from Pfizer in the form of active drug and placebo for a trial of preterm delivery.
Funding/Support: This review was funded by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for salary support through a cooperative agreement between the Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA) and the Malaria Epidemiology Unit of the Child and Reproductive Health Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), held by Dr ter Kuile. Dr Ashorn and Dr Luntamo were supported by grants from the Academy of Finland and the Finnish Cultural Foundation. Dr Kayentao was supported by a PhD training grant from the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, The Hague, the Netherlands. Drs ter Kuile and van Eijk are partly funded by the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium, which is funded through a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to the LSTM. Dr Doumbo reports receiving support from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding institutions had no role in the protocol development; the design and conduct of the review; data collection, analysis, and interpretation; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank Vittoria Lutje, PhD, information specialist, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group, LSTM, for helping with the search strategy; Alison Reynolds, MA, and Helen Wong, BA, Child and Reproductive Health Group, LSTM, for invaluable administrative support; the authors of the other studies who provided results in addition to the published data to allow stratification of the results by gravidity and HIV groups (Monica Parise, MD, and Scott Filler, MD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Davidson Hamer, MD, Boston University Schools of Public Health and Medicine; Innocent Valea, MD, and Halidou Tinto, PharmD, PhD, Laboratory of Parasitology and Entomology, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, and Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la santé, Direction Régionale de l'Ouest, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; and Umberto d’ Alessandro, MD, PhD, Medical Research Council, Gambia Unit, Banjul, The Gambia, and the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium); Brian Greenwood, MD, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and Stephen Rogerson, FRACP, PhD, Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, for useful comments on the manuscript; and Sarah Donegan, MSc, Cochrane Infectious Disease Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, for statistical advice. No one received financial compensation for his or her contributions.