Author Contributions: Drs Teno and Gozalo had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Teno, Gozalo, Bynum, Morden, Scupp, Mor.
Acquisition of data: Teno, Gozalo, Scupp, Goodman, Mor.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Teno, Gozalo, Bynum, Leland, Miller, Morden, Scupp, Mor.
Drafting of the manuscript: Teno, Gozalo, Bynum, Leland, Morden, Scupp, Mor.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Teno, Gozalo, Bynum, Leland, Miller, Morden, Scupp, Goodman, Mor.
Statistical analysis: Teno, Gozalo, Bynum, Leland, Scupp, Mor.
Obtained funding: Teno, Mor.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Teno, Bynum, Leland, Scupp, Goodman, Mor.
Study supervision: Teno, Gozalo, Mor.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Teno reported having received honoraria for speeches and lectures from nonprofit organizations. Dr Bynum reported having received a grant from the National Institutes of Health. Dr Leland reported having received grants from the National Institutes of Health; having received a fellowship from the Center for Gerontology and Healthcare Research of Brown University; and having received a stipend for collaboratively writing practice guidelines for productive aging from the American Occupational Therapy Association. Dr Miller reported having received funding as a co-investigator to design and simulate modification to the Medicare hospice benefit payment system from the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization. Dr Morden reported having received a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Dr Goodman reported having received grants from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and National Institutes of Health; having served as a consultant for HealthDialog; and having received speakers' fees from the World Congress, Illinois Hospital Association, National Hospice Workgroup, National Association of Health Data Organizations, St Peters University Hospital, Massachusetts Hospital Association, Cooper Health System, Organizzato dal Laboratoria Management e Sanità Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna di Pisa, Kentucky Academy of Family Physicians, Southern Illinois University Health Policy Institute, Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Institute for Clinical Quality and Value, Marwood Group, American Society of Clinical Oncologists, OR Manager, Delta Health Alliance, SUNY Upstate University, Intermountain Healthcare, Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, Massachusetts Health Data Consortium, and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Dr Mor reported having received grants or having grants pending from the National Institutes of Health, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institute on Aging, Commonwealth Fund, American Health Care Association, and Kidney Care Partners; having received travel support from the National Institutes of Health and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; having received speakers' fees from the Alliance for Long Term Care Quality; having served on a board for PointRight and HCR Manor Care; having consulted for Abt Associates, Research Triangle Institute, and Welsh Carson Investment; and owning stock in PointRight. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was funded by a National Institute on Aging grant (P01AG027296) and in part by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Online-Only Material: The Author Video Interview is available .
Additional Contributions: We thank Cindy Williams, BS (research assistant employed by Brown University), and Chris Brostrup-Jensen, BA (senior programmer employed by Brown University), for their assistance in manuscript preparation and database formation. Their contribution was part of their employment at Brown University; therefore, they did not receive any external compensation.