Author Contributions: Dr Hasegawa had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Hasegawa, Brown.
Acquisition of data: Hasegawa, Hiraide.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Hasegawa, Chang, Brown.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hasegawa.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hasegawa, Hiraide, Chang, Brown.
Statistical analysis: Hasegawa, Chang.
Obtaining funding: Hiraide.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Brown.
Study supervision: Hasegawa, Hiraide, Brown.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by a grant to Dr Hiraide for emergency management scientific research from the Fire and Disaster Management Agency.
Role of the Sponsor: The Fire and Disaster Management Agency gathered and managed the data but had no role in the design and conduct of the study; analysis and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The article contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Fire and Disaster Management Agency.
Additional Contributions: We thank all of the EMS personnel and physicians in Japan and the Fire and Disaster Management Agency and Institute for Fire Safety and Disaster Preparedness of Japan for their generous cooperation in establishing and maintaining the Utstein database. We also thank Carlos A. Camargo Jr, MD, DrPH, Massachusetts General Hospital, for critical revision of the manuscript. No compensation was made for his role in this study.