Author Contributions: Dr Al-Khatib had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Al-Khatib, Hammill, Mark, Anstrom, L. Curtis, Peterson, Sanders, Lee.
Acquisition of data: Al-Khatib, Bardy, Hall, Mark, Anstrom, Lee, Moss.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Al-Khatib, Hellkamp, Bardy, Hammill, Hall, Mark, Anstrom, J. Curtis, Al-Khalidi, L. Curtis, Heidenreich, Peterson, Sanders, Clapp-Channing, Lee, Moss.
Drafting of the manuscript: Al-Khatib.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hellkamp, Bardy, Hammill, Hall, Mark, Anstrom, J. Curtis, Al-Khalidi, L. Curtis, Heidenreich, Peterson, Sanders, Clapp-Channing, Lee, Moss.
Statistical analysis: Hellkamp, Anstrom, Al-Khalidi, L. Curtis, Lee.
Obtained funding: Al-Khatib.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Clapp-Channing.
Study supervision: Al-Khatib, Bardy, Hammill, Lee, Moss.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Bardy reported consulting fees, equity, and intellectual property rights in Cameron Health. Dr Mark reported receiving research grants from Eli Lilly, Medtronic, AstraZeneca, and Gilead Sciences. Dr Anstrom reported receiving research support from AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, and Medtronic; having served as a consultant for Abbott Vascular, AstraZeneca, Bristol Meyer Squibb, and Ikaria; and having served on data monitoring committees for Pfizer and Vertex. Dr J. Curtis reported owning stock in Medtronic and receiving salary support from the American College of Cardiology Foundation, Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services, and National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Dr L. Curtis reported receiving research and salary support from Johnson & Johnson, GlaxoSmithKline, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and NHLBI. Dr Curtis has made available online a detailed listing of financial disclosures (http://www.dcri.duke.edu/research/coi.jsp). Dr Heidenreich reported receiving research support from Medtronic. Dr Lee reported receiving modest consulting fees from Medtronic. Dr Moss reported receiving research grants from Boston Scientific and salary support from Boston Scientific, Medtronic, St Jude, and Biotronic. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This analysis was funded by a grant (1R01-HL093071-01A1) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. The manuscript was reviewed by the MADIT-II and SCD-HeFT leadership and the American College of Cardiology NCDR ICD Registry Research and Publications Committee.
Disclaimer: Views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Dr Peterson, a contributing editor for JAMA, was not involved in the editorial review of or the decision to publish this article.
Additional Contributions: We thank Yongfei Wang, MS, a statistician at Yale University, for conducting the deterministic matching between the ICD Registry and the Death Master File from the Social Security Administration. Through a subcontract between the NCDR and Yale University, Mr Wang was compensated for his efforts.