Author Contributions: Dr Lucas had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Lucas, Trick, Evans, Smith, Das, Clarke, Varkey, Mathew, Weinstein.
Acquisition of data: Lucas, Mba.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Lucas, Trick, Evans, Smith.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lucas.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Lucas, Trick, Evans, Mba, Smith, Das, Clarke, Varkey, Mathew, Weinstein.
Statistical analysis: Lucas, Trick.
Obtained funding: Weinstein.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lucas, Trick, Evans, Das, Clarke, Varkey, Weinstein.
Study supervision: Lucas, Weinstein.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Trick reports receiving research support from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, but this support was not used for any portion of the current article. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Support for this study was provided by a philanthropic gift from the Foglia Family Foundation.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank Linda K. Goodine for administrative data retrieval; George Markovski, BS, and Manjula Srinivasan, MCA, for electronic survey and database architecture; Rudolf Kumapley, MD, for coordination of the inpatient service; and the attending physicians, house staff, and medical students for their participation. All were salaried employees of Cook County Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, and received no additional compensation for their efforts in this study. In addition, we thank Ashley L. G. Rogers, an MS student from University of Illinois at Chicago, and Lidia Hernandez, a BSN student from Malcolm X College, Chicago, who were compensated through the Foglia Family Foundation grant as research assistants to collect and enter data.