Author Contributions: Dr Palen had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Palen, Ross, Xu.
Acquisition of data: Palen, Ross, Powers.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Palen, Ross, Powers, Xu.
Drafting of the manuscript: Palen, Ross.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Palen, Ross, Powers, Xu.
Statistical analysis: Palen, Ross, Powers, Xu.
Obtained funding: Palen.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Palen.
Study supervision: Palen, Xu.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Palen is employed by the Colorado Permanente Medical Group. Ms Ross, Mr Powers, and Dr Xu are all employees of the Kaiser Permanente Health Plan of Colorado. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Kaiser Permanente Colorado Regional Initiative Committee Fund.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Online-Only Material: The Author Video Interview is available here.
Additional Contributions: We thank John F. Steiner, MD, and Cristy Geno-Rasmusson, MPH, for their thoughtful review of the manuscript and helpful comments. We also thank Barbara McCray, AA, for her editorial review. All are employees of the Institute for Health Research department of Kaiser Permanente Health Plan of Colorado and as employees did not receive any added compensation for their work on the manuscript.