Author Contributions: Drs Palm-Meinders and Kruit had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Palm-Meinders and Koppen contributed equally. Drs Ferrari and Kruit share last authorship.
Study concept and design: Palm-Meinders, Koppen, Launer, van Buchem, Ferrari, Kruit.
Acquisition of data: Palm-Meinders, Koppen, Bakkers, Hofman, Middelkoop, van Buchem, Kruit.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Palm-Meinders, Koppen, Terwindt, Launer, Konishi, Moonen, van Lew, Middelkoop, van Buchem, Ferrari, Kruit.
Drafting of the manuscript: Palm-Meinders, Koppen, Moonen, Middelkoop, van Buchem, Kruit.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Palm-Meinders, Koppen, Terwindt, Launer, Konishi, Bakkers, Hofman, van Lew, Middelkoop, van Buchem, Ferrari, Kruit.
Statistical analysis: Palm-Meinders, Koppen, Launer, Moonen, Middelkoop.
Obtained funding: Palm-Meinders, Koppen, van Buchem, Ferrari, Kruit.
Administrative, technical, or material support: P alm-Meinders, Koppen, Bakkers, Hofman, van Lew, Middelkoop, van Buchem.
Study supervision: Palm-Meinders, Koppen, Launer, Terwindt, van Buchem, Ferrari, Kruit.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Ferrari reported receiving grants and consultancy or industry support from Almirall, Coherex, Colucid, Eisai, GlaxoSmithKline, Linde, MAP, Medtronic, Menarini, Merck, Minster, Pfizer, and St Jude, and independent support from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NOW). Dr Terwindt reported receiving consultancy support from Merck, Janssen-Cilag, Almirall, and Menarini. Dr Koppen reported consultancy or industry support from Allergan, Benecke congres, Pfizer, and In circulation website. The other authors reported no financial disclosures.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants 1R01NS061382-01 from the National Institutes of Health, 2007B016 from the Netherlands Heart Foundation, and 903-52-291, VICI 918-56-602, and Spinoza 2009 from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, and 907-00-217 and Vidi 917-11-319 from the Intramural Research Program at the National Institute on Aging.
Role of the Sponsor: None of the funding bodies had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The contents of this article are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the National Institutes of Health or the Netherlands Heart Foundation.
Online-Only Material: Author Video is available here.
Additional Contributions: We thank the research students and MR technicians for their assistance in screening and care of participants in this study.