Two articles in this issue report results of studies that assessed disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Safford and colleagues examined incident coronary heart disease (CHD) by black and white race and sex in a prospective cohort of 24 443 individuals. Among their findings were higher rates of fatal incident CHD in blacks, which was associated with a greater CVD risk factor burden in blacks than in whites. In a multicenter prospective study of 15 079 US Hispanic and Latino adults of diverse backgrounds, Daviglus and colleagues found that the overall prevalence of major CVD risk factors was high, with some variance related to race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and level of acculturation. In an editorial, Lauer discusses the transformation of epidemiological investigation.