Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death and disability globally1 and affects more than 50% of men and 40% of women during their lifetimes.2 Despite remarkable scientific advances, in 2008 CVD accounted for 1 of every 3 deaths in the United States and for health care costs estimated at close to $300 billion.3 The major risk factors for CVD are well known but remain ubiquitous in populations. For example, about one-third of US adults (>75 million) have hypertension; more than 20% smoke; more than one-third (>78 million) are obese; 8% (>18 million) have diagnosed diabetes, with similar rates of undiagnosed diabetes and an additional 35% with prediabetes; 15% have high cholesterol levels; and, in the 2009-2010 NHANES survey, 46.5% (102.5 million) had at least 1 major risk factor among uncontrolled blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and current smoking.3,4 These risk factors are also major contributors to other chronic diseases such as cancer, depression, arthritis, kidney disease, and cognitive decline.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 3
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.