Published Online: October 30, 2012. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.16817
Author Contributions: Dr Coresh had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Matsushita, Astor, Gansevoort, Levin, Wen, Coresh.
Acquisition of data: Matsushita, Coresh (for CKD-PC, with CKD-PC investigators/collaborators listed below).
Analysis and interpretation of data: Hallan, Matsushita, Sang, Mahmoodi, Black, Ishani, Kleefstra, Naimark, Roderick, Tonelli, Wetzels, Astor, Gansevoort, Levin, Wen, Coresh.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hallan, Matsushita, Gansevoort, Coresh.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hallan, Matsushita, Sang, Mahmoodi, Black, Ishani, Kleefstra, Naimark, Roderick, Tonelli, Wetzels, Astor, Gansevoort, Levin, Wen, Coresh.
Statistical analysis: Matsushita, Sang, Coresh (with Data Coordinating Center members listed below).
Obtained funding: Matsushita, Coresh (for CKD-PC, with cohort and collaborator support listed in eAppendix 3).
Administrative, technical, or material support: Matsushita, Sang, Coresh.
Study supervision: Matsushita, Gansevoort, Coresh.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Matsushita reports receiving grant support to his institution from the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) and Amgen and to him from the National Institutes of Health; Dr Mahmoodi, grant support from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research and the Dutch Kidney Foundation; Dr Black, grant support to her institution from CKD-PC/KDIGO; Dr Ishani, travel support from the NKF; Dr Naimark, a stipend for data analysis from the NKF/CKD-PC and payment for expert testimony from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Newfoundland and Labrador; Dr Roderick, grant support to his institution from Kidney Research UK, Dr Tonelli, grant support to his institution from Johns Hopkins University; Dr Wetzels, grant support to his institution from Amgen, Pfizer, and Sanofi-Genzyme; Dr Gansevoort, grants and consultancy/lecture fees to his institution from Otsuka, Bayer, Amgen, Baxter, Abbott, and Roche and payment to him for educational materials or travel expenses from Roche, Amgen, and Bayer; Dr Wen, grant support to his institution from the Taiwan Department of Public Health Clinical Trial and Research Center of Exellence; and Dr Coresh, grant support to his institution from the NKF and Amgen and payment to him for consultancy fees from Amgen and Merck. No other disclosures were reported.
CKD-PC Investigators/Collaborators (study abbreviations are listed in eAppendix 1): AASK (United States): Jackson T. Wright Jr, Lawrence J. Appel, Tom Greene, Brad C. Astor; ADVANCE (Australia): John Chalmers, Stephen MacMahon, Mark Woodward, Hisatomi Arima; Aichi Workers Cohort (Japan): Hiroshi Yatsuya, Kentaro Yamashita, Hideaki Toyoshima, Koji Tamakoshi; AKDN (Canada): Marcello Tonelli, Brenda R. Hemmelgarn, Aminu Bello, Matthew T. James; ARIC (United States): Josef Coresh, Brad C. Astor, Kunihiro Matsushita, Yingying Sang; AusDiab Study (Australia): Robert C. Atkins, Kevan R. Polkinghorne, Steven Chadban; Beaver Dam CKD Study (United States): Anoop Shankar, Ronald Klein, Barbara E. K. Klein, Kristine E. Lee; Beijing Cohort Study (China): Haiyan Wang, Fang Wang, Luxia Zhang, Li Zuo; British Columbia CKD Study (Canada): Adeera Levin, Ognjenka Djurdjev; CARE (United States/Canada): Marcello Tonelli, Frank M. Sacks, Gary C. Curhan; CHS (United States): Michael Shlipak, Carmen Peralta, Ronit Katz, Linda F. Fried; CIRCS (Japan): Hiroyasu Iso, Akihiko Kitamura, Tetsuya Ohira, Kazumasa Yamagishi; COBRA (Pakistan/United Kingdom): Tazeen H. Jafar, Muhammad Islam, Juanita Hatcher, Neil Poulter, Nish Chaturvedi; CRIB (United Kingdom): Martin J. Landray, Jonathan Emberson, Jonathan N. Townend, David C. Wheeler; ESTHER (Germany): Dietrich Rothenbacher, Hermann Brenner, Heiko Müller, Ben Schöttker; Framingham Heart Study (United States): Caroline S. Fox, Shih-Jen Hwang, James B. Meigs; Geisinger CKD Study (United States): Robert M. Perkins; GLOMMS-1 Study (United Kingdom): Nick Fluck, Laura E. Clark, Gordon J. Prescott, Angharad Marks, Corri Black; Gubbio Study (Italy): Massimo Cirillo; HUNT (Norway): Stein Hallan, Knut Aasarød, Cecilia M. Øien, Maria Radtke; IPHS (Japan): Fujiko Irie, Hiroyasu Iso, Toshimi Sairenchi, Kazumasa Yamagishi; Kaiser Permanente Northwest (United States): David H. Smith, Jessica W. Weiss, Eric S. Johnson, Micah L. Thorp; KEEP (United States): Allan J. Collins, Joseph A. Vassalotti, Suying Li, Shu-Cheng Chen; Kaiser Permanente Hawaii Cohort (United States): Brian J. Lee; MASTERPLAN (Netherlands): Jack F. Wetzels, Peter J. Blankestijn, Arjan D. van Zuilen; MDRD (United States): Mark Sarnak, Andrew S. Levey, Lesley A. Inker, Vandana Menon; MESA (United States): Michael Shlipak, Mark Sarnak, Carmen Peralta, Ronit Katz, Holly J. Kramer; MMKD (Austria/Germany): Florian Kronenberg, Barbara Kollerits, Eberhard Ritz; MRC Study of Assessment of Older People (United Kingdom): Paul Roderick, Dorothea Nitsch, Astrid Fletcher, Christopher Bulpitt; MRFIT (United States): Areef Ishani, James D. Neaton; NephroTest Study (France): Marc Froissart, Benedicte Stengel, Marie Metzger, Jean-Philippe Haymann, Pascal Houillier, Martin Flamant; NHANES III (United States): Brad C. Astor, Josef Coresh, Kunihiro Matsushita; Ohasama Stud y (Japan): Takayoshi Ohkubo, Hirohito Metoki, Masaaki Nakayama, Masahiro Kikuya, Yutaka Imai; Okinawa 83/93 Cohorts (Japan): Kunitoshi Iseki; Pima Indian Study (United States): Robert G. Nelson, William C. Knowler; PREVEND (Netherlands): Ron T. Gansevoort, Paul E. de Jong, Bakhtawar K. Mahmoodi, Hiddo J. Lambers Heerspink; Rancho Bernardo Study (United States): Simerjot Kaur Jassal, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Jaclyn Bergstrom; RENAAL (Netherlands/United States): Hiddo J. Lambers Heerspink, Barry E. Brenner, Dick de Zeeuw; REGARDS (United States): David G. Warnock, Paul Muntner, Suzanne Judd, William McClellan; Severance Cohort Study (Republic of Korea): Sun Ha Jee, Heejin Kimm, Jaeseong Jo, Yejin Mok, Jung Eun Lim; STENO (Denmark): Peter Rossing, Hans-Henrik Parving; Sunnybrook Cohort (Canada): Navdeep Tangri, David Naimark; Taiwan MJ Cohort Study (Taiwan/United States): Chi-Pang Wen, Sung-Feng Wen, Chwen-Keng Tsao, Min-Kuang Tsai; ULSAM (Sweden): Johan Ärnlöv, Lars Lannfelt, Anders Larsson; ZODIAC (Netherlands): Henk J. Bilo, Hanneke Joosten, Nanne Kleefstra, Klaas H. Groenier, Iefke Drion; CKD-PC Steering Committee: Brad C. Astor, Josef Coresh (chair), Ron T. Gansevoort, Brenda R. Hemmelgarn, Paul E. de Jong, Andrew S. Levey, Adeera Levin, Kunihiro Matsushita, Chi-Pang Wen, Mark Woodward; CKD-PC Data Coordinating Center: Shoshana H. Ballew (coordinator), Josef Coresh (principal investigator), Morgan Grams, Bakhtawar K. Mahmoodi, Kunihiro Matsushita (director), and Yingying Sang (lead programmer), Mark Woodward (senior statistician); administrative support: Laura Camarata, Xuan Hui, Jennifer Seltzer, Heather Winegrad.
Funding/Support: The CKD-PC Data Coordinating Center is funded in part by a program grant from the US National Kidney Foundation (National Kidney Foundation funding sources include Abbott and Amgen). A variety of sources have supported enrollment and data collection including laboratory measurements and follow-up in the collaborating cohorts of the CKD-PC. These funding sources include government agencies such as national institutes of health and medical research councils as well as foundations and industry sponsors listed in eAppendix 3.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.