Author Contributions: Dr Fawzi had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Mugusi, Aboud, Guerino, Fawzi.
Acquisition of data: Mugusi, Hawkins, Okuma, Aboud, Guerino, Fawzi.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Isanaka, Hawkins, Spiegelman, Okuma, Aboud, Guerino, Fawzi.
Drafting of the manuscript: Isanaka, Okuma.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mugusi, Hawkins, Spiegelman, Okuma, Aboud, Guerino, Fawzi.
Statistical analysis: Isanaka, Spiegelman, Okuma.
Obtained funding: Fawzi.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hawkins, Guerino, Fawzi.
Study supervision: Mugusi, Aboud, Guerino, Fawzi.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grant R01 HD32257 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
Role of the Sponsor: The study sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank all of the patients who contributed to this study. Susie Welty, MPH (Harvard School of Public Health, currently with University of California, San Francisco) and Jeremy C. Kane, MPH (Harvard School of Public Health, currently with Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health) provided supervision of the study implementation; and Ellen Hertzmark, MA (Harvard School of Public Health) provided support in data analysis. Ms Welty, Mr Kane, and Ms Hertzmark contributed to the study as employees of the Harvard School of Public Health and received no additional compensation for their contributions.