Author Contributions: Dr Dodwell had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Dodwell, Snyder, Wright.
Acquisition of data: Dodwell.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Dodwell, Snyder, Wright.
Drafting of the manuscript: Dodwell, Wright.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Dodwell, Snyder, Wright.
Statistical analysis: Dodwell.
Study supervision: Snyder, Wright.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Dodwell reported receiving a grant from the Ruth Jackson Orthopedic Society/Orthopedic Education and Research Fund. Dr Wright reported receiving reimbursement for travel expenses incurred as a visiting professor. Dr Snyder did not report any disclosures.
Funding/Support: The source of the data, the Kids' Inpatient Database, is part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Role of the Sponsor: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge Charles Victor, MSc, PStat (Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences and Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada), for his assistance with the statistical analysis. Mr Victor received compensation for his work on this project.