Author Contributions: Drs Narbro and Neovius had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Sjöström and Carlsson contributed equally and are both guarantors.
Study concept and design: Carlsson, Keating, Narbro, Neovius, Peltonen, Sjöholm, Sjöström, Ågren
Acquisition of data: Carlsson, Narbro, Neovius (registry-data only), Peltonen, Sjöholm, Sjöström
Analysis and interpretation of data: Carlsson, Keating, Narbro, Neovius, Peltonen, Sjöholm, Sjöström
Drafting of the manuscript: Carlsson, Keating, Narbro, Neovius, Peltonen, Sjöholm, Sjöström
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Carlsson, Keating, Narbro, Neovius, Peltonen, Sjöholm, Sjöström, Ågren
Statistical analysis: Neovius
Obtained funding: Carlsson, Narbro, Neovius, Sjöström
Administrative, technical, or material support: Carlsson, Narbro, Sjöholm, Sjöström
Study supervision: Carlsson, Sjöström
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. Dr Carlsson reported having served as a consultant for Astra Zeneca and holding stocks in Sahltech. Dr Sjöström reported obtaining unrestricted Swedish Obese Subjects grants from sanofi-aventis and Johnson & Johnson since 2007; receiving lecture and consulting fees from Astra Zeneca, Biovitrum, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson, Lenimen, Merck, Novo Nordisk, Hoffmann-LaRoche, sanofi-aventis, and Servier; and holding stocks in Lenimen and being chairman of its board. Dr Neovius has received lecture and consulting fees from Abbott, sanofi-aventis, Itrim International, and Strategic Health Resources; research grants from Cambridge Weight Plan and Novo Nordisk; and royalty payments for co-authoring chapters in a Swedish textbook on obesity. Dr Narbro has received royalty payments for co-authoring a chapter in a Swedish textbook on obesity. Keating leads an independent research grant from Allergan Australia. Dr Sjöholm reported holding stocks in Pfizer. All other authors declared no conflicts of interest.
Funding/Support: This analysis based on a registry linkage of the Swedish Obese Subjects study data to the National Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register was supported by a grant from Arbetsmarknadens Försäkrings- och Aktiebolag (AFA) to Drs Narbro and Neovius.
The Swedish Obese Subjects study was supported by grants K2012-55X-22082-01-3, K2010-55X-11285-13, K2008-65X-20753-01-4 from the Swedish Medical Research Council, the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research to Sahlgrenska Centre for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, and the Swedish federal government under the LUA/ALF agreement (Drs Carlsson and Sjöström). These research grants applied for as ordinary Research Council grants are paid by the Swedish State to the university hospitals as compensation for teaching costs. Unconditional support was also obtained from Hoffmann-LaRoche, Astra Zeneca, Cederroths, sanofi-aventis, and Johnson & Johnson.
Role of the Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study or in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data. Medical writers were not used.