Author Contributions: Drs Adams and Hunt had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Adams, Litwin, Kolotkin, LaMonte, Hopkins, Gress, Walker, Cloward, Hunt.
Acquisition of data: Adams, Davidson, Litwin, Pendleton, Strong, Vinik, Wanner, Gress, Walker, Nuttall, Greenwood, McKinlay, Simper, Smith, Hunt.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Adams, Davidson, Litwin, Kolotkin, LaMonte, Hopkins, Gress, Walker, Cloward, Nuttall, Hammoud, Crosby, Hunt.
Drafting of the manuscript: Adams, Davidson, Litwin, Kolotkin, Hunt.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Adams, Davidson, Litwin, Kolotkin, LaMonte, Pendleton, Strong, Vinik, Wanner, Hopkins, Gress, Walker, Cloward, Nuttall, Hammoud, Greenwood, Crosby, McKinlay, Simper, Smith, Hunt.
Statistical analysis: Adams, Davidson, Hopkins, Gress, Crosby, Hunt.
Obtained funding: Adams, Litwin, Hunt.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Adams, Gress, Nuttall, Hunt.
Study supervision: Adams, Davidson, Hunt.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Kolotkin reported receiving royalties for use of the IWQOL-Lite from Duke University, being a consultant for Vivus, Orexigen, and GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Crosby reported receiving consulting honorarium from Health Outcome Solutions. Dr Simper reported receiving consulting honorarium from Ethicon EndoSurgical. No other authors reported any disclosures.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grant DK-55006 from the National Institutes of Health/The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and Public Health Service research grant M01-RR00064 from the National Center for Research Resources.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institutes of Health had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Online-Only Material: The Author Video Interview is available .
Additional Contributions: We thank R.C. Halverson, MD, Charles B. Edwards, MD, Gerald N. Goodman, MD, and the late David K. Miller, MD (bariatric surgeons with Rocky Mountain Associated Physicians Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah). Acknowledgments are also expressed for clinical and technical support from the staff of the Cardiovascular Genetics Division who assisted with recruitment and clinical testing (including Sara Frogley, Loni Gardner, and Sawsan Ibrahim), the Huntsman Center for Clinical and Transitional Science and their very capable staff, and the Cardiology Division, University of Utah School of Medicine. No financial compensation was given to the surgeons but salary support was received by the above-named staff members.