Author Contributions: Dr Smith had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Smith, Nuorti, Zimmerman.
Acquisition of data: Smith, Wateska, Nowalk, Raymund, Zimmerman.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Smith, Wateska, Nowalk, Nuorti, Zimmerman.
Drafting of the manuscript: Smith, Wateska.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Smith, Nowalk, Raymund, Nuorti, Zimmerman.
Statistical analysis: Smith, Wateska.
Obtained funding: Smith.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Smith, Nowalk, Raymund, Nuorti, Zimmerman.
Study supervision: Smith.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Zimmerman and Nowalk reported having a research grant from Merck on HPV vaccine. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (R01 AI076256).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agency had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Additional Contributions: We thank the Working Group on Pneumococcal Vaccines of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for providing their expert opinion of pneumococcal vaccine efficacy estimates. We also thank Matthew R. Moore, MD, MPH, and Ruth Link-Gelles, MPH, Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, for data from the Active Bacterial Core surveillance. None received compensation for the contributions.