The first vaccines to prevent pneumococcal infections, crude preparations of killed bacteria, were developed by Sir Almroth Wright in 1911 to try to alleviate the high mortality and morbidity among gold miners in South Africa.1 Discovery that antibodies against purified polysaccharides of the capsular surface of pneumococci were protective led to development of polysaccharide vaccines that were marketed in the 1940s. These vaccines were commercial failures because the advent of antimicrobials led to a perception that pneumococcal infections were no longer a major threat.2 Subsequent evidence of the persistence of significant morbidity from pneumococcal infections, as well as mortality rates of 25% to 30% in patients with invasive (including bacteremic) pneumococcal infections despite early treatment with antimicrobials, led to redevelopment of a polysaccharide vaccine, approved in the United States in 1977, that contained 14 of the more than 90 serotypes of pneumococci (responsible for about 80% of invasive pneumococcal infections in the United States). In 1983 the current expanded formulation of the vaccine that contains polysaccharides of 23 pneumococcal serotypes (PPSV23) was introduced.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 3
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.