Published Online: February 5, 2012. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.137
Author Contributions: Dr Thompson and Ms Dong had full access to the data and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Rice, Wheeler, Thompson, Steingrub, Hite, Morris, Rock.
Acquisition of data: Wheeler, Thompson, Hite, Moss, Morris, Rock.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Rice, Wheeler, Thompson, Steingrub, Hite, Dong, Rock.
Drafting of the manuscript: Rice, Wheeler, Thompson, Steingrub, Morris, Rock.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Rice, Wheeler, Steingrub, Hite, Moss, Morris, Dong, Rock.
Statistical analysis: Rice, Dong, Rock.
Obtained funding: Wheeler, Steingrub, Morris.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wheeler, Thompson, Steingrub, Hite, Moss, Morris, Rock.
Study supervision: Wheeler, Thompson, Moss, Morris.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) contracts HHSN268200536165C and HHSN268200536179C.
Role of the Sponsors: The NHLBI had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network: University of Washington, Harborview (*L. Hudson, S. Gundel, C. Hough, M. Neff, K. Sims, A. Ungar, T. Watkins); Baystate Medical Center (*J. Steingrub, M. Tidswell, E. Braden, L. DeSouza, J. Germain, C. Kardos, D. Kelley, L. Kozikowski, S. Ouellette); Baylor College of Medicine (K. Guntupalli, V. Bandi, C. Pope, C. Ross); Johns Hopkins University (*R. Brower, H. Fessler, D. Hager, P. Mendez-Tellez, D. Needham, K. Oakjones); Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center (J. Sevransky, A. Workneh); University of Maryland (C. Shanholtz, D. Herr, H. Howes, G. Netzer, P. Rock, A. Sampaio, J. Titus); Union Memorial Hospital (P. Sloane, T. Beck, D. Highfield, S. King); Washington Hospital Center (B. Lee, N. Bolouri); Cleveland Clinic Foundation (*H.P. Wiedemann, R.W. Ashton, D.A. Culver, T. Frederick, J.A. Guzman, J.J. Komara Jr, A.J. Reddy); University Hospitals of Cleveland (R. Hejal, M. Andrews, D. Haney); MetroHealth Medical Center (A.F. Connors, S. Lasalvia, J.D. Thornton, E.L. Warren); University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora (*M. Moss, E.L. Burnham, L. Gray, J. Maloney, M. Mealer); Denver Health Medical Center (I. Douglas, K. Overdier, K. Thompson, R. Wolken); Rose Medical Center (S. Frankel, J. McKeehan); Swedish Medical Center (M.L. Warner); Saint Anthony's Hospital (T. Bost, C. Higgins, K. Hodgin); Duke University (*N. MacIntyre, L. Brown, C. Cox, M. Gentile, J. Govert, N. Knudsen); University of North Carolina (S. Carson, L. Chang, S. Choudhury, W. Hall, J. Lanier); Vanderbilt University (*A.P. Wheeler, G.R. Bernard, M. Hays, S. Mogan, T.W. Rice); Wake Forest University (*R.D. Hite, K. Bender, A. Harvey, P.E. Morris, Mary Ragusky); Moses Cone Memorial Hospital (P. Wright, S. Groce, J. McLean, A. Overton); University of Virginia (J. Truwit, K. Enfield, M. Marshall); LDS Hospital and Intermountain Medical Center (*A. Morris, A. Austin, S. Barney, S. Brown, J. Fergeson, H. Gallo, T. Graydon, C. Grissom, E. Hirshberg, A. Jephson, N. Kumar, R. Miller, D. Murphy, J. Orme, A. Stow, L. Struck, F. Thomas, D. Ward, L. Weaver); LDS Hospital (P. Bailey, W. Beninati, L. Bezdijan, T. Clemmer, S. Rimkus, R. Tanaka McKay); Dee Hospital (C. Lawton, D. Hanselman); Utah Valley Regional Medical Center (K. Sundar, W. Alward, C. Bishop, D. Eckley, T. Hill, B. Jensen, K. Ludwig, D. Nielsen, M. Pearce); University of California, San Francisco (*M.A. Matthay, C. Calfee, B. Daniel, M. Eisner, O. Garcia, K. Kordesch, K. Liu, N. Shum, H. Zhou); University of California, San Francisco, Fresno (M.W. Peterson, J. Blaauw, K. Van Gundy); University of California, Davis (T. Albertson, B. Morrissey, E. Vlastelin); Mayo Foundation (*R. Hubmayr, D. Brown, M. Dubin, E. Festic, O. Gajic, R. Hinds, S. Holets, D. Kor, A. Lee, M. Passe, G. Simpson, J. Wright); Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans (*B. deBoisblanc, A. Antoine, D. Charbonnet, J. Hunt, P. Lauto, A. Marr, G. Meyaski, C. Romaine, R. Tejedor); Earl K. Long Medical Center, Baton Rouge General Medical Center Mid-City and Baton Rouge General Medical Center Bluebonnet (S. Brierre, J. Byrne, T. Jagneaux, C. LeBlanc, K. Moreau, C. Thomas); Ochsner Clinic Foundation (S. Jain, D. Taylor, L. Seoane); Our Lady of the Lake Medical Center (C. Hebert, J. Thompson); Tulane Medical Center (F. Simeone, J. Fearon). Clinical Coordinating Center: Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (*D. Schoenfeld, M. Guha, E. Hammond, N. Lavery, P. Lazar, R. Morse, C. Oldmixon, N. Ringwood, E. Smoot, B.T. Thompson, R. Wilson). National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: A. Harabin, S. Bredow, M. Waclawiw, G. Weinmann. Data and Safety Monitoring Board: R. G. Spragg (chair), A. Slutsky, M. Levy, B. Markovitz, E. Petkova, C. Weijer. Protocol Review Committee: J. Sznajder (chair), M. Begg, E. Israel, J. Lewis, S. McClave, P. Parsons.