Author Contributions: Dr Grinspoon had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Subramanian and Tawakol contributed equally to the manuscript. Drs Lo and Grinspoon contributed equally to the manuscript.
Study concept and design: Subramanian, Tawakol, Lo, Grinspoon.
Acquisition of data: Subramanian, Tawakol, Burdo, Abbara, Wei, Vijaykumar, Corsini, Hoffmann, Williams, Lo, Grinspoon.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Subramanian, Tawakol, Burdo, Abbara, Wei, Vijaykumar, Corsini, Abdelbaky, Zanni, Hoffmann, Williams, Lo, Grinspoon.
Drafting of the manuscript: Subramanian, Tawakol, Abbara, Lo, Grinspoon.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Subramanian, Tawakol, Burdo, Abbara, Wei, Vijaykumar, Corsini, Abdelbaky, Zanni, Hoffmann, Williams, Lo, Grinspoon.
Statistical analysis: Tawakol, Wei, Lo, Grinspoon.
Obtained funding: Tawakol, Williams, Grinspoon.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wei, Corsini, Zanni, Hoffmann.
Study supervision: Tawakol, Grinspoon.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Tawakol reported consulting for Roche, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Novartis, and receiving grant support from Merck & Co, GlaxoSmithKline, Genetech/Roche, Vascular Biogenics Ltd, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, all unrelated to the manuscript. Dr Abbara reported consulting for Perceptive Informatics and Partners Imaging, receiving grant support from Bracco and Becton, Dickinson and Company, and receiving royalties from Elsevier and Amirsys, all unrelated to the manuscript. Dr Hoffmann reported receiving research support from Siemens Healthcare, GE Healthcare, Bracco Diagnostics, the American College of Radiology Imaging Network, and National Institutes of Health, all unrelated to the manuscript. Dr Grinspoon reported receiving research support from Amgen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Theratechnologies; consulting for Aileron, Theratechnologies, Alize Pharmaceuticals, Hoffmann-La Roche, and Serono; and receiving lecture fees from Ferrer and sanofi-aventis, all unrelated to the manuscript. No other authors reported any disclosures.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grant R01 HL 095123 from the National Institutes of Health (Dr Grinspoon). Relevant grants supporting investigators from the National Institutes of Health were K23 HL092792 (Dr Lo), NS37654 and NS40237 (Dr Williams), and K24 DK064545 (Dr Grinspoon). The General Clinical Research Center grant is M01 RR01066-25S1.
Role of the Sponsors: Funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Previous Presentation: Presented in part at the 2012 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; March 7, 2012; Seattle, Washington.