Author Contributions: Drs Limketkai and Sulkowski had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Mehta, Sutcliffe, Thomas, Sulkowski.
Acquisition of data: Limketkai, Higgins, Torbenson, Brinkley, Moore, Thomas, Sulkowski.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Limketkai, Mehta, Sutcliffe, Moore, Thomas, Sulkowski.
Drafting of the manuscript: Limketkai, Thomas, Sulkowski.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Limketkai, Mehta, Sutcliffe, Higgins, Torbenson, Brinkley, Moore, Thomas, Sulkowski.
Statistical analysis: Mehta, Sutcliffe.
Obtained funding: Thomas, Sulkowski.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Higgins, Torbenson, Moore, Sulkowski.
Study supervision: Higgins, Thomas, Sulkowski.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Limketkai reported receiving a grant from Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr Mehta reported receiving consulting fees from Columbia University. Dr Sutcliffe reported receiving payment for conference planning from the International Cancer Control Association. Ms Brinkley reported receiving consulting fees from Merck and Vertex Pharmaceuticals and payment for lectures from Merck, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, and Roche/Genentech. Dr Thomas reported receiving consulting fees from Merck and grants to Johns Hopkins University from Merck and Gilead Sciences. Dr Sulkowski reported receiving consulting fees and research grants to Johns Hopkins University from Abbott Laboratories, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Gilead, Janssen, Merck, Roche/Genentech, and Vertex. Ms Higgins, Dr Torbenson, and Dr Moore reported no conflicts of interest.
Funding/Support: Financial support for this study came from grants K24DA00432, K24DA034621, R01DA11602, R01DA16065, R37DA13806, and P30DA13868 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), R01AA016893 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), P30AI094189 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and UL1RR025005 from the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research.
Role of the Sponsor: The NIH had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The contents of this study are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of NIDA, NIAAA, NIAID, NCRR, or NIH.
Previous Presentation: An earlier version of this was previously presented at the 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 2010; San Francisco, CA; Abstract 166.