MASSIVE TRANSFUSION of cold bank blood will significantly lower the body temperature. The heart is the first organ to receive the stream of cold blood infused into an antecubital vein. Esophageal temperatures behind the heart, as low as 27.5° to 29° C. (81.5° to 84.2° F.) have been recorded at the time of cardiac arrest in patients receiving large amounts of cold bank blood.1, 2 Rapid cooling of the heart by perfusion could be an important factor in the development of cardiovascular complications during massive blood replacement.
To avoid the effects of cardiac and general hypothermia during massive hemorrhage, it was decided to warm cold bank blood to body temperature when it is administered rapidly and in large amounts. For this purpose, a mechanism was devised for warming bank blood during administration. In essence, this apparatus consists of 24 ft. of sterile plastic tubing, 4.5 mm. in diameter, wrapped