Author Contributions: Drs Köpke and Meyer had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Köpke, Mühlhauser, Haastert, Meyer.
Acquisition of data: Köpke, Gerlach, Haut, Möhler, Meyer.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Köpke, Mühlhauser, Haastert, Meyer.
Drafting of the manuscript: Köpke, Mühlhauser, Meyer.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Gerlach, Haut, Haastert, Möhler.
Statistical analysis: Haastert.
Obtained funding: Köpke, Mühlhauser, Meyer
Administrative, technical, or material support: Gerlach, Haut, Möhler.
Study supervision: Köpke, Mühlhauser, Meyer.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: The study was funded by a grant from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research within the Nursing Research Network Northern Germany (projects 01GT0606 and 01GT0608).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding body approved the design of the study but had no role in the conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The opinions, results, and conclusions reported in this article are those of the authors and are independent of the funding source.
Additional Contributions: We thank the study coordinators, nursing staff, and participating residents of 36 nursing homes and the members of the guideline development group. We also thank research assistants Britta Blotenberg, BScN (Witten/Herdecke University), Christiane Brinkmann (University of Hamburg), Pia von Lützau, MScN (Witten/Herdecke University), and Eva Schmidt (University of Hamburg), whose work was funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, for assistance in data collection and administration. None of the practice partners received compensation for the contributions.