Author Contributions: Dr Denardo had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Denardo, Carpinone, Batich.
Acquisition of data: Denardo, Carpinone.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Denardo, Carpinone, Vock, Batich, Pepine.
Drafting of the manuscript: Denardo, Carpinone, Batich, Pepine.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Denardo, Carpinone, Vock, Pepine.
Statistical analysis: Denardo, Vock.
Obtained funding: Denardo, Pepine.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Denardo, Carpinone, Batich, Pepine.
Study supervision: Denardo, Batich, Pepine.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Denardo reported serving on a speakers bureau for Merck. Dr Batich reported serving as a consultant to Xhale Inc, Materials Consultants Inc, and Akzono Inc; providing expert testimony for Materials Consultants Inc; having grants pending with the National Institutes of Health; receiving royalties from Xhale, QuickMed Inc, and Akzano Inc; and owning stock or stock options in Xhale and Akzano Inc. Drs Carpinone and Pepine and Mr Vock did not report any disclosures.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by the University of Florida Gatorade Fund (<$10 000). Drs Batich and Pepine received support from National Institute of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award UL1 RR029890 to the University of Florida.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no involvement in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge James E. Tcheng, MD, and Harry R. Phillips III, MD (Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina) for their critical review of the data and contribution to the development of this research letter. Neither received compensation for their effort.