Studies of the clinical data on 778 children with malignant neoplastic disease showed that in 210 the cancer involved primarily the anatomic structures of the head and neck. The most frequent diagnoses were malignant lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and soft-tissue sarcoma, retinoblastoma, brain tumor, and carcinoma of the thyroid. Special age predilections were demonstrated by retinoblastoma for the infancy group and by lymphomas and thyroid cancer for the older children. With the notable exception of carcinoma of the thyroid, children with head and neck cancer were more commonly boys. The significant incidence of long-term control of the malignancy in most tumor categories emphasized the importance of planned, peristent, aggressive, multidisciplinary attack on cancer in these children.