Peptic ulcer in infancy and childhood appears to be increasing in incidence. In this study, peptic ulceration was associated with steroid therapy or a serious underlying illness in seven of ten infants and in nine of 40 older children. Ten patients from birth to the age of two years presented with perforation or bleeding. Among 16 patients with perforation, the eight who were not operated on died. The eight who were treated surgically all survived. Four of ten patients with massive bleeding, not operated on died; two treated surgically are alive and well. Omental plication, ligature, and the rarely indicated gastric resection are advised according to clinical and diagnostic findings.