Although the three species of schistosomas produce characteristic illnesses, unusual organ involvement may occur, as illustrated by a case of S japonica involvement of the female genital tract. This case, the third reported to date, was apparently successfully treated with sodium antimony tartrate. Schistosomiasis of all types is a leading public health problem, affecting approximately 5% of the world population. The most serious infestation is S japonica because of its greater virulence and resistance to treatment. Physicians should be alerted to this disease. It may be encountered in protean forms in Africa and Asia and among persons coming to the United States from endemic areas.