Myeloma was seen as an isolated tumor in 55 of 413 patients with apparently solitary vertebral column tumors. Survival for 5 to 21 years was recorded for 18 of the 44 patients who had either normal results from bone-marrow examination or no examination of marrow. Of seven patients who had myeloma of bone marrow in addition to an isolated vertebral lesion, only one lived for 31/2 years. Only six patients remain alive and free of disease after more than five years. Bence-Jones proteinuria and elevated values for serum globulin do not necessarily denote that survival will be brief. Also, the presence of mitotic figures or of a pleomorphic histological picture did not appear to be related to prognosis. Irradiation relieved pain and destroyed localized tumor in most patients, but decompressive procedures were necessary in patients with rapidly progressing paraplegia.