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Paul B. Magnuson, M.D.; James K. Stack, M.D.
JAMA. 1940;114(21):2103. doi:10.1001/jama.1940.62810210006011c.
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The medical literature of the past twenty-five years is replete with articles dealing with recurrent or habitual dislocation of the shoulder. The 250 or more procedures or modifications advocated for the correction of this condition attest the difficulties of finding the ideal one. Most authors stress methods of treatment, but occasionally a pedagogic outline of the subject is found in which etiology and pathology are discussed as well. The discussion of etiology usually revolves around (1) trauma and (2) "a congenital factor." There seems to be little question that severe trauma to the supporting structures of the shoulder will, in the event of improper care (or occasionally with proper care), result in a laxity which will predispose the shoulder to further dislocations. The "congenital factor," however, is referred to in a vague and cursory manner. A congenital elongation of the capsule or its muscular supports, congenital malformation of the humeral


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