Author Contributions: Dr Persson had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Persson, Arifeen, Ekström, Rasmussen, Frongillo, Yunus.
Acquisition of data: Persson, Arifeen, Ekström, Frongillo, Yunus.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Persson, Arifeen, Ekström, Rasmussen, Frongillo, Yunus.
Drafting of the manuscript: Persson, Arifeen, Rasmussen.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Persson, Arifeen, Ekström, Frongillo, Yunus.
Statistical analysis: Persson, Arifeen, Frongillo.
Obtained funding: Persson, Arifeen, Frongillo.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Persson, Arifeen, Ekström, Yunus.
Study supervision: Persson, Arifeen, Yunus.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Persson, Arifeen, and Ekström reported having attended meetings organized by UNICEF on planning, preliminary analysis, and interpretation of the different prenatal multiple micronutrient trials. Drs Rasmussen, Frongillo, and Yunus reported no financial disclosures.
The MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab) Study Team (in alphabetical order) : International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B): Dewan Alam, MBBS, PhD, Lauren S. Blum, PhD, Badal Dhar, MHI, Jena Hamadani, PhD, Waheedul Hoque, MBBS, Iqbal Kabir, MBBS, PhD, Ruchhira T. Naved, PhD, Anisur Rahman, MBBS, PhD, Mahfuzar Rahman, MBBS, PhD, Motiur Rahman, MBBS, PhD (currently at Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam), Rubhana Raqib, PhD, Kuntal K. Saha, MBBS, PhD, Rubina Shaheen, MBBS, Peter K. Streatfield, PhD, Fahmida Tofail, MBBS, PhD, MA Wahed, MSc; BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh: Mushtaque Chowdhury, PhD; Medical Research Council International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England, and Medical Research Council Keneba, the Gambia: Sophie Moore, BSc, PhD, Andrew Prentice, BSc, PhD; Institute of Child Health, London, England: Sally G. McGregor, MD, FRCP; University of California, Davis: Bo Lönnerdal, PhD; Micronutrient Initiative, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico: Lynnette M. Neufeld, PhD; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden: Marie Vahter, PhD; University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan: Yukiko Wagatsuma, MD, PhD.
Funding/Support: The MINIMat research study was funded by the ICDDR,B, United Nations Children's Fund, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), UK Medical Research Council, Swedish Research Council, Department for International Development (DFID), Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative, Uppsala University, and US Agency for International Development. ICDDR,B acknowledges the following donors who provided unrestricted support: Australian Agency for International Development, Canadian International Development Agency, DFID, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, and Sida. Salaries of the MINIMat study team at ICDDR,B were partly supported by the research grants provided to the trial. No other compensations were received by any MINIMat study team member for their contributions.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding agencies had no role in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully thank the participation of all pregnant women and families in Matlab, Bangladesh. Jean-Pierre Habicht, MD, PhD, Gretel Pelto, MA, PhD, and Jere D. Haas, PhD (Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York), developed the design of the study. No compensation was received from funding sponsors for this contribution.