Author Contributions: Dr Bendavid had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Bendavid.
Acquisition of data: Bendavid, Holmes.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Bhattacharya, Miller.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bendavid.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bendavid, Holmes, Bhattacharya, Miller.
Statistical analysis: Bendavid, Bhattacharya, Miller.
Study supervision: Bhattacharya, Miller.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Bendavid is supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (K01-AI084582) and by the Dr George Rosenkranz Prize for Health Care Research in Developing Countries. Dr Miller receives support from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute on Aging. Both received support from the Center on the Demography and Economics of Health and Aging (P30-AG17253).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agencies had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions of this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of State.
Previous Presentations: This work was presented at the Global Health Conference; November 15, 2011; Montreal, Quebec, Canada; and at the 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; March 5-8, 2012; Seattle, Washington.
Online-Only Material: The Author Video Interview is available .
Additional Contributions: Supervision of country-level PEPFAR indicator/data collection was provided by Justus Kamwesigye, BA (USAID/Zambia), and Thomas Finkbeiner, MD, MPH (CDC Tanzania). Mr Kamwesigye and Dr Finkbeiner were not compensated for these activities besides their salaries.