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George R. Ludwig
JAMA. 1954;155(11):976-979. doi:10.1001/jama.1954.73690290009007.
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In its effort to provide public school education for every handicapped, homebound child, the state of Iowa has made extensive use of school-to-home telephone equipment. With the cooperation of physicians, educators, local telephone authorities, and the Executone Corporation, manufacturers of this equipment, "in class" instruction has been extended to hundreds of school children. Some have been graduated as honor students and gone on to college, never having seen the inside of a school. With this facility the homebound (or hospitalized) child hears all the activities of the classroom. When called on to recite or participate in group discussions, the shut-in can manipulate a switch and be heard by the entire class. Thus the homebound child, at his bedside located far from the school, has two-way conversational contact with his class and can participate in the classroom program.

In 1938 Mr. W. A. Winter-Stein of the Department of Public Instruction helped


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