JAMA. 1932;98(1):64-66. doi:10.1001/jama.1932.02730270068026.
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Improvement in Living Conditions in the Ukraine  In the eighties of the last century, the French hygienist Layer, comparing conditions of living in different countries, wrote in his "Etudes sur la vie matérielle des campagnards en Europe" that nowhere in Europe can be found worse houses than in Russian and Ukrainian villages. Not only living conditions in the country were bad in the former Russia, but other sanitary-epidemiologic indexes were also very low. For instance, there were so few public baths in the towns that every citizen could visit them not more than twice a year and, if he lived in country districts, even more rarely. Before the World War in many towns there were no sewerage, no water supply and no public baths. It is not surprising that epidemic diseases, accompanied by high mortality rates, were widespread in Russia. Their number increased as a result of the imperialist and


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