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JAMA. 1931;97(21):1530-1536. doi:10.1001/jama.1931.02730210028008.
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This paper is the report of a clinical research in the use of anesthetics, which has been carried on in the surgical clinic at Rush Medical College for more than thirty years. This research was undertaken for the purpose of determining the safest, simplest and most efficient anesthetics for use in general surgical work.

In this research, it was found necessary to formulate a scheme of measurement, a yardstick, which could be employed in measuring the various anesthetics and anesthetic methods. The yardstick which was adopted to test the various anesthetics and anesthetic methods and combinations is made up of the following nine requirements:

  1. The safety of the patient.

  2. The comfort of the patient.

  3. The efficiency of the anesthetic agent.

  4. Control, avoiding anesthetics which cannot be withdrawn at the first sign of danger.

  5. The elimination of psychic trauma through the abolishing of both pain and consciousness.

  6. The simplicity and general


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