Author Contributions: Mr Pappas had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Athan, Tattevin, Fernández-Hidalgo, Spelman, Hannan, Fowler, Wang.
Acquisition of data: Athan, Chu, Tattevin, Selton-Suty, Jones, Naber, Miró, Ninot, Fernández-Hidalgo, Durante-Mangoni, Spelman, Hoen, Lejko-Zupanc, Cecchi, Thuny, Fowler, Crowley.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Athan, Tattevin, Miró, Ninot, Fernández-Hidalgo, Durante-Mangoni, Spelman, Hoen, Cecchi, Hannan, Pappas, Henry, Crowley, Wang.
Drafting of the manuscript: Athan, Spelman, Fowler, Wang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Athan, Chu, Tattevin, Selton-Suty, Jones, Naber, Miró, Ninot, Fernández-Hidalgo, Durante-Mangoni, Spelman, Hoen, Lejko-Zupanc, Cecchi, Thuny, Hannan, Pappas, Henry, Crowley, Wang.
Statistical analysis: Miró, Spelman, Hannan, Pappas, Henry.
Obtained funding: Chu, Wang.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Athan, Chu, Hannan, Fowler, Crowley, Wang.
Study supervision: Athan, Miró, Ninot, Cecchi, Wang.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Chu reported receiving a career development award from the American Heart Association. Dr Tattevin reported receiving travel support to attend a meeting from Novartis. Dr Miró reported serving on the advisory boards of Cubist and Novartis; serving as a consultant for Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cubist, Gilead Sciences, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, and Theravance; receiving grants or grants pending from Cubist, Novartis, Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias (FIS, Spanish Ministry of Health), the National Institutes of Health, and RIS-III (Spanish Network for AIDS Research); and receiving payment for lectures from Abbott, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cubist, GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead Sciences, Janssen-Cilag, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Schering-Plough, Theravance, and ViiV. Dr Durante-Mangoni reported receiving payment for lectures from Novartis. Dr Hannan reported receiving an educational travel grant from Pfizer and receiving travel grants to attend international meetings from Pfizer and MSD. Dr Fowler reported serving as a consultant for Astellas, Cubist, Merck, Johnson & Johnson, Galderma, NovaDigm, The Medicines Company, Biosynexus, MedImmune, Novartis, and Pfizer; receiving grants or grants pending from the National Institutes of Health, Astellas, Cubist, Merck, Theravance, Cerexa, Pfizer, Novartis, Advanced Liquid Logic, and MedImmune; holding a patent (planned, pending, or issued) for a diagnostic approach; receiving royalties from UpToDate; and receiving honoraria for development of educational presentations from Arpida, Astellas, Cubist, Inhibitex, Merck, Pfizer, Targanta, Theravance, Wyeth, Ortho-McNeil, Novartis, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, and MedImmune. Dr Wang reported providing expert testimony for trial defense; receiving grants or grants pending from Gilead Sciences, Edwards Lifesciences, and Abbott Vascular; receiving payment for lectures from American Physician; receiving royalties for serving as an editor from Springer; and receiving payment for development of educational presentations from the American College of Cardiology Foundation. No other authors reported disclosures. None of the investigators received compensation for participation in ICE-PCS.
Funding/Support: This work was supported in part by grants from the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain, and the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI RD06/0008). Dr Miró holds an INT10/219 Intensification Research Grant (I3SNS & PRICS programs) from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain, and the Departament de Salut de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study Investigators and Sites:Argentina: Liliana Clara, MD, Marisa Sanchez, MD (Hospital Italiano). Francisco Nacinovich, MD, Pablo Fernandez Oses, MD, Ricardo Ronderos, MD, Adriana Sucari, MD, Jorge Thierer, MD (Instituto Cardiovascular). José Casabé, MD, PhD, Claudia Cortes, MD (Hospital Universitario de la Fundaciòn Favaloro). Javier Altclas, MD, Silvia Kogan, MD (Sanatorio de la Trinidad Mitre). Australia: Denis Spelman, MD (Alfred Hospital). Eugene Athan, MD, Owen Harris, MBBS (Barwon Health). Karina Kennedy, MBBS, Ren Tan, MBBS (Canberra Hospital). David Gordon, MBBS, PhD, Lito Papanicolas, MBBS (Flinders Medical Centre). Damon Eisen, MBBS, MD, Leeanne Grigg, MBBS, Alan Street, MBBS (Royal Melbourne Hospital). Tony Korman, MD, Despina Kotsanas, BSc (Hons) (Southern Health). Robyn Dever, MD, Phillip Jones, MD, Pam Konecny, MD, Richard Lawrence, MD, David Rees, MD, Suzanne Ryan, MHSc (St George Hospital). Michael P. Feneley, MD, John Harkness, MD, Phillip Jones, MD, Suzanne Ryan, MHSc (St Vincent's Hospital). Austria: Phillip Jones, MD, Suzanne Ryan, MHSc (Sutherland). Phillip Jones, MD, Jeffrey Post, MD, Porl Reinbott, Suzanne Ryan, MHSc (The University of New South Wales). Rainer Gattringer, MD, Franz Wiesbauer, MD (Vienna General Hospital). Brazil: Adriana Ribas Andrade, Ana Cláudia Passos de Brito, Armenio Costa Guimarães, MD (Ana Neri Hospital). Max Grinberg, MD, PhD, Alfredo José Mansur, MD, PhD, Rinaldo Focaccia Siciliano, MD, Tania Mara Varejao Strabelli, MD, Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira, MD (Heart Institute [Incor], University of São Paulo Medical School). Regina Aparecida de Medeiros Tranchesi, MD, Marcelo Goulart Paiva, MD (Hospital 9 de Julho). Claudio Querido Fortes, MD (Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho/UFRJ). Auristela de Oliveira Ramos, MD (Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia). Giovanna Ferraiuoli, MD, Wilma Golebiovski, MD, Cristiane Lamas, MD, PhD, Marisa Santos, MD, PhD, Clara Weksler, MD (Instituto Nacional de Cardiologi). Canada: James A. Karlowsky, MD, Yoav Keynan, MD, Andrew M. Morris, MD, Ethan Rubinstein, MD, LLB (University of Manitoba). Chile: Sandra Braun Jones, MD, Patricia Garcia, MD (Hospital Clínico Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile). Mauricio Cereceda, MD, Alberto Fica, Rodrigo Montagna Mella, MD (Hospital Clinico Universidad de Chile). Croatia: Bruno Barsic, MD, PhD, Suzana Bukovski, MD, PhD, Vladimir Krajinovic, MD, Ana Pangercic, MD, Igor Rudez, MD, Josip Vincelj, MD, PhD (University Hospital for Infectious Diseases). Czech Republic: Tomas Freiberger, MD, PhD, Jiri Pol, MD, Barbora Zaloudikova, MSc (Centre for Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantation). Egypt: Zainab Ashour, MD, Amani El Kholy, MD, Marwa Mishaal, MD, Hussien Rizk, MD (Cairo University Medical School). France: Neijla Aissa, MD, Corentine Alauzet, MD, Francois Alla, MD, PhD, Catherine Campagnac, RN, Thanh Doco-Lecompte, MD, Christine Selton-Suty, MD (CHU Nancy-Brabois). Jean-Paul Casalta, MD, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, MD, Gilbert Habib, MD, Didier Raoult, MD, PhD, Franck Thuny, MD (Faculté de Médecine de Marseille). Francois Delahaye, MD, PhD, Armelle Delahaye, Francois Vandenesch, MD (Hospital Louis Pradel). Erwan Donal, MD, Pierre Yves Donnio, PhD, Christian Michelet, MD, PhD, Matthieu Revest, MD, Pierre Tattevin, MD, PhD, Jérémie Violette, MD (Pontchaillou University). Florent Chevalier, MD, Antoine Jeu, MD, Dan Rusinaru, MD, Claire Sorel, MD, Christophe Tribouilloy, MD, PhD (South Hospital Amiens). Yvette Bernard, MD, Catherine Chirouze, MD, Bruno Hoen, MD, PhD, Joel Leroy, MD, Patrick Plesiat, MD (University Medical Center of Besançon). Germany: Bahram Mazaheri, PhD, Christoph Naber, MD, PhD, Carl Neuerburg (University Essen). Greece: Sofia Athanasia, MD, Efthymia Giannitsioti, MD (Attikon University General Hospital). Elena Mylona, MD, Olga Paniara, MD, PhD, Konstantinos Papanicolaou, MD, John Pyros, MD, Athanasios Skoutelis, MD, PhD (Evangelismos General Hospital of Athens). India: Gautam Sharma, MD (All India Institute of Medical Sciences). Johnson Francis, MD, DM, Lathi Nair, MD, DM, Vinod Thomas, MD, DM, Krishnan Venugopal, MD, DM (Medical College Calicut). Ireland: Margaret Hannan, MB, BCh BAO, MSc, John Hurley, MB, BCh (Mater Hospitals). Israel: Dan Gilon, MD, Sarah Israel, MD, Maya Korem, MD, Ethan Rubinstein, MD, LLB, Jacob Strahilevitz, MD (Tel-Aviv University School of Medicine). Italy: Roberta Casillo, MD, PhD, Susanna Cuccurullo, MSc, Giovanni Dialetto, MD, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, MD, PhD, Mattucci Irene, MD, Enrico Ragone, MD, PhD, Marie Françoise Tripodi, MD, Riccardo Utili, MD, PhD (Università di Napoli). Enrico Cecchi, MD, Francesco De Rosa, MD, Davide Forno, MD, Massimo Imazio, MD, Rita Trinchero, MD (Maria Vittoria Hospital). Alessandro Tebini, MD, Paolo Grossi, MD, PhD, Mariangela Lattanzio, MD, Antonio Toniolo, MD (Ospedale di Circolo Varese). Antonio Goglio, MD, Annibale Raglio, MD, DTM&H, Veronica Ravasio, MD, Marco Rizzi, MD, Fredy Suter, MD (Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo). Giampiero Carosi, MD, Silvia Magri, MD, Liana Signorini, MD (Spedali Civili–Università di Brescia). Lebanon: Tania Baban, MD, Zeina Kanafani, MD, MS, Souha S. Kanj, MD, Mohamad Yasmine, MD (American University of Beirut Medical Center). Malaysia: Imran Abidin, MD (University of Malaya Medical Center). Syahidah Syed Tamin, MD (National Heart Institute). Mexico: Eduardo Rivera Martínez, MD, Gabriel Israel Soto Nieto, MD (Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez). The Netherlands: Jan T. M. van der Meer, MD, PhD (University of Amsterdam). New Zealand: Stephen Chambers, MD, MSc (University of Otago). David Holland, MB, ChB, PhD (Middlemore Hospital). Arthur Morris, MD (Diagnostic Medlab). Nigel Raymond, MB, ChB (Wellington Hospital). Kerry Read, MB, ChB (North Shore Hospital). David R. Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H (University of Otago). Romania: Stefan Dragulescu, MD, PhD, Adina Ionac, MD, PhD, Cristian Mornos, MD (Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy). Russia: O. M. Butkevich, PhD (Learning-Scientific Centre of Medical Centre of Russian Presidential Affairs Government Medical Centre of Russia). Natalia Chipigina, PhD, Ozerecky Kirill, MD, Kulichenko Vadim, Tatiana Vinogradova, MD, PhD (Russian Medical State University). Saudi Arabia: Jameela Edathodu, MBBS, Magid Halim, MBBS (King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center). Singapore: Luh-Nah Lum, BSN, Ru-San Tan, MBBS (National Heart Centre). Slovenia: Tatjana Lejko-Zupanc, MD, PhD, Mateja Logar, MD, PhD, Manica Mueller-Premru, MD, PhD (Medical Center Ljublijana). South Africa: Patrick Commerford, MD, Anita Commerford, MD, Eduan Deetlefs, MD, Cass Hansa, MD, Mpiko Ntsekhe, MD (University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital). Spain: Manuel Almela, MD, Yolanda Armero, MD, Manuel Azqueta, MD, Ximena Castañeda, MD, Carlos Cervera, MD, Ana del Río, MD, PhD, Carlos Falces, MD, Cristina Garcia-de-la-Maria, PhD, Guillermina Fita, MD, José M. Gatell, MD, PhD, Francesc Marco, MD, PhD, Carlos A. Mestres, MD, PhD, José M. Miró, MD, PhD, Asunción Moreno, MD, PhD, Salvador Ninot, MD, Carlos Paré, MD, PhD, Joan Pericas, MD, José Ramírez, MD, PhD, Irene Rovira, MD, Marta Sitges, MD (Hospital Clínic–IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona). Ignasi Anguera, MD, PhD, Bernat Font, MD, Joan Raimon Guma, MD (Hospital de Sabadell, Barcelona). Javier Bermejo, Emilio Bouza, MD, PhD, Miguel Angel García Fernández, MD, Víctor González-Ramallo, MD, Mercedes Marín, MD, Patricia Muñoz, MD, PhD, Miguel Pedromingo, MD, Jorge Roda, Marta Rodríguez-Créixems, MD, PhD, Jorge Solís, MD (Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid). Benito Almirante, MD, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, MD, Pilar Tornos, MD (Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona). Arístides de Alarcón, Ricardo Parra (Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla). Sweden: Eric Alestig, MD, Magnus Johansson, MD, PhD, Lars Olaison, MD, PhD, Ulrika Snygg-Martin, MD (Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset/Östra). Thailand: Orathai Pachirat, MD, Pimchitra Pachirat, MD, Burabha Pussadhamma, MD, Vichai Senthong, MD (Khon Kaen University). United Kingdom: Anna Casey, MBBS, Tom Elliott, PhD, DSc, Peter Lambert, BSc, PhD, DSc, Richard Watkin, MBBS (Queen Elizabeth Hospital). Christina Eyton, John L. Klein, MD (St Thomas' Hospital). United States: Suzanne Bradley, MD, Carol Kauffman, MD (Ann Arbor VA Medical Center). Roger Bedimo, MD, MS (Dallas VA Medical Center). Vivian H. Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, Anna Lisa Crowley, MD, MHS, Pamela Douglas, MD, Laura Drew, RN, BSN, Vance G. Fowler, MD, MHS, Thomas Holland, MD, Tahaniyat Lalani, MBBS, MHS, Daniel Mudrick, MD, Zainab Samad, MD, MHS, Daniel Sexton, MD, Martin Stryjewski, MD, MHS, Andrew Wang, MD, Christopher W. Woods, MD, MPH (Duke University Medical Center). Stamatios Lerakis, MD (Emory University). Robert Cantey, MD, Lisa Steed, PhD, Dannah Wray, MD, MHS (Medical University of South Carolina). Stuart A. Dickerman, MD (New York University Medical Center). Hector Bonilla, MD, Joseph DiPersio, MD, PhD, Sara-Jane Salstrom, RN (Summa Health System). John Baddley, MD, Mukesh Patel, MD (University of Alabama at Birmingham). Gail Peterson, MD, Amy Stancoven, MD (University of Texas–Southwestern Medical Center). Luis Afonso, MD, Theresa Kulman, RN, Donald Levine, MD, Michael Rybak, PharmD, MPH (Wayne State University). Christopher H. Cabell, MD, MHS (Quintiles). ICE Coordinating Center: Khaula Baloch, MPH, Vivian H. Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, Christy C. Dixon, Vance G. Fowler Jr, MD, MHS, Tina Harding, RN, BSN, Marian Jones-Richmond, Paul Pappas, MS, Lawrence P. Park, PhD, Thomas Redick, MPH, Judy Stafford, MS. ICE Publications Committee: Kevin Anstrom, PhD, Eugene Athan, MD, Arnold S. Bayer, MD, Christopher H. Cabell, MD, MHS, Vivian H. Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, Vance G. Fowler Jr, MD, MHS, Bruno Hoen, MD, PhD, A. W. Karchmer, MD, José M. Miró, MD, PhD, David R. Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H, Daniel J. Sexton MD, Andrew Wang, MD. ICE Steering Committee: Arnold S. Bayer, MD, Christopher H. Cabell, MD, MHS, Vivian Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, David T. Durack, MD, DPhil, Susannah Eykyn, MD, Vance G. Fowler Jr, MD, MHS, Bruno Hoen, MD, PhD, José M. Miró, MD, PhD, Phillipe Moreillon, MD, PhD, Lars Olaison, MD, PhD, Didier Raoult, MD, PhD, Ethan Rubinstein, MD, LLB, Daniel J. Sexton, MD.