Author Contributions: Dr Lake had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Lake, Staiger, Horbar, Patrick, Rogowski
Acquisition of data: Lake, Staiger, Horbar, Cheung, Patrick, Rogowski.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Lake, Staiger, Horbar, Cheung, Kenny, Patrick, Rogowski.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lake, Staiger, Horbar, Patrick, Rogowski.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Lake, Staiger, Horbar, Cheung, Kenny, Patrick, Rogowski.
Statistical expertise: Staiger, Kenny.
Obtained funding: Lake, Staiger, Horbar, Patrick, Rogowski.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lake, Cheung.
Study supervision: Lake.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Lake received an honorarium for plenary remarks at the 2010 American Nurses Credentialing Center Research Symposium. Dr Staiger holds an equity interest in ArborMetric Inc, a company that sells efficiency measurement systems and consulting services to insurers and hospitals. Dr Horbar is chief executive and scientific officer for the Vermont Oxford Network. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative grant (to Dr Lake) and grant R01NR010357 (to Dr Rogowski) from the National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Nursing Research or the National Institutes of Health.
Online-Only Material: The Author Audio Interview is available here.
Additional Contributions: We thank the 578 institutions that participated in the Vermont Oxford Network database, whose work made this research possible.