Author Contributions: Dr Galvagno had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Galvagno, Haut, Millin, Efron, Koenig, Pronovost, Haider.
Acquisition of data: Galvagno, Haut, Zafar, Haider.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Galvagno, Zafar, Baker, Bowman, Haider.
Drafting of the manuscript: Galvagno, Haut, Milllin, Efron, Baker, Bowman, Pronovost, Haider.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Galvagno, Koenig, Baker, Bowman, Pronovost, Haider.
Statistical expertise: Galvagno, Zafar, Bowman, Haider.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Galvagno, Haut, Efron, Pronovost, Haider.
Study supervision: Galvagno, Haut, Haider.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Haut reported that he receives royalties from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins for Avoiding Common ICU Errors ; and has provided expert testimony in various medical malpractice cases. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Galvagno was funded in part by an institutional training grant (T-32 Ruth Kischstein grant) from the National Institutes of Health when this study was initiated as part of his PhD program at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr Haut receives support from a mentored clinical scientist development award (1K08HS017952-01) from the Agency for Healthcare Research. Dr Haider receives support from the American College of Surgeons (C. James Carrico fellowship in trauma and critical care) and from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (career development award K23GM093112-01).
Role of the Sponsors: None of the funding sources had a role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Online-Only Material: The Author Video Interview is available here.