Author Contributions: Dr Miller had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Tan, Norton, Ye, Hafez, Gore, Miller.
Acquisition of data: Tan, Ye, Miller.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Tan, Norton, Ye, Hafez, Gore, Miller.
Drafting of the manuscript: Tan, Norton, Ye, Miller.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hafez, Gore.
Statistical Analysis: Tan, Norton, Ye.
Obtaining funding: Miller.
Administrative, technical or material support: Tan, Norton, Ye, Gore, Miller.
Supervision: Norton, Hafez, Gore, Miller.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Gore reports being a member of the paid advisory board for Blue Cross Blue Shield of America; and the receipt of grants or pending grants from the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute. Dr Miller reports provision of consultancy services for United HealthCare; receipt of salary from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan; receipt of lecture or speakers bureau honorarium from the American Society of Clinical Oncology; receipt of travel/accomodations/meeting expenses from the Kidney Cancer Association; and serving on the medical advisory board for the Kidney Cancer Association. The other authors report no disclosures.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (K08 HS018346-01A1), the Edwin Beer Research Fellowship in Urology and Urology-Related Fields from the New York Academy of Medicine, and the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center.
Role of the Sponsors: The sponsors had no input on the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: For this study, the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database was used. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors. We acknowledge the efforts of the Applied Research Program, National Cancer Institute; the Office of Research, Development, and Information, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; Information Management Services, Inc.; and the SEER Program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database.