Author Contributions: Mr Januel had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Januel, Chen, Quan, Colin, Ghali, Burnand.
Acquisition of data: Januel, Chen, Quan.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Januel, Chen, Ruffieux, Quan, Douketis, Crowther, Burnand.
Drafting of the manuscript: Januel, Chen, Quan, Burnand.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Chen, Ruffieux, Quan, Douketis, Crowther, Colin, Burnand.
Statistical analysis: Januel, Chen, Ruffieux, Quan.
Obtained funding: Quan, Colin.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Chen, Quan, Crowther, Ghali, Burnand.
Study supervision: Crowther, Colin, Ghali, Burnand.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: Drs Ghali and Quan are funded as research scientists by Alberta Innovates Health Solutions, a government research funding agency in Alberta, Canada. This work has been conducted in the framework of the research agenda of IMECCHI (International Methodology Consortium for Coded Health Information), an international collaboration of health services researchers who aim to promote the methodological development and use of coded health information to promote quality of care and quality health policy decisions (http://www.imecchi.org/IMECCHI/).
Role of the Sponsors: Alberta Innovates Health Solutions and IMECCHI had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank Lucienne Boujon, secretary at Lausanne University Hospital, for copyediting the manuscript. Ms Boujon received no extra compensation for her contributions.