Author Contributions: Dr Speroff had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design. Murff, Brown, Speroff
Acquisition of data. Gentry, Brown, Speroff
Analysis and interpretation of data. Murff, FitzHenry, Matheny, Gentry, Kotter, Crimin, Dittus, Rosen, Elkin, Brown, Speroff
Drafting of the manuscript. Murff
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. Murff, FitzHenry, Matheny, Gentry, Dittus, Rosen, Elkin, Brown, Speroff
Statistical analysis. Kotter, Crimin
Obtained funding. Murff, Brown, Speroff
Study supervision. Murff, Speroff
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interests. Dr Matheny reported that he is supported by the Veterans Health Administration HSR&D Career Development Award CDA-08–020. Drs Matheny and Speroff reported that they are supported by the Veterans Health Consortium for Health Informatics Research (CHIR) awards HIR 09-001 and HIR 09-003. Dr Elkins reported that a pending grant from the National Institutes of Health. No other disclosures were made.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant SAF-03-223 from the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors were not involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The view expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States government.
Additional Contributions: We thank the VA Surgical Quality Data Use Group (SQDUG) for its role as scientific advisors and for the critical review of data use and analysis presented in the manuscript. We also thank the collaborative investigators for their work in this study: Debra Jo Barrett, MSN, Lexington VA Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky; William G. Cheadle, MD, Louisville VA Medical Center, Louisville, Kentucky; Brad L. Roper, PhD, Memphis VA Medical Center, Memphis, Tennessee; Teresa England, RN, James H. Quillen VA Medical Center, Mountain Home, Tennessee; and Sandra E. Shaw, RN, Huntington VA Medical Center, Huntington, West Virginia, none of whom received compensation.