Author Contributions: Dr McAlister had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: McAlister, Ezekowitz, Page, Rowe.
Acquisition of data: McAlister, Ezekowitz, Hooton, Spooner, Dryden.
Analysis and interpretation of data: McAlister, Ezekowitz, Vandermeer, Page, Hltaky, Rowe.
Drafting of the manuscript: McAlister, Ezekowitz, Vandermeer.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: McAlister, Ezekowitz, Hooton, Vandermeer, Spooner, Dryden, Page, Hltaky, Rowe.
Statistical analysis: Vandermeer.
Obtained funding: Rowe.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hooton, Spooner, Dryden.
Study supervision: McAlister, Ezekowitz, Hooton, Dryden.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Page is an officer of the Heart Rhythm Society and a member of the Circulatory System Device Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration. He reports serving within the past 5 years as a consultant for Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline, AstraZeneca, Forrest Research, Cardiome, Pharma Corp, Alza Corp, Berlex Labs, Hewlett Packard Co, Reliant Pharmaceuticals Inc, Sanofi-Aventis, and Pfizer Inc. No other authors reported financial disclosures.
Funding/Support: This work was based on an evidence report produced by the University of Alberta Evidence-based Practice Center under contract 290-02-0023 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Md. The authors of this article are responsible for its content. Dr McAlister is a Population Health Scholar supported by the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research, a New Investigator of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), and holds the Merck Frosst/Aventis Chair in Patient Health Management at the University of Alberta, Edmonton. Dr Ezekowitz is supported by CIHR. Dr Rowe is supported by the 21st Century Canada Research Chairs program through the Government of Canada. He is also supported by the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, and the Capital Health Authority, Edmonton.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of the data, or in the preparation of the manuscript, or in the decision to submit the paper for publication.
Disclaimer: Statements in this article should not be construed as endorsement by the AHRQ or the US Department of Health and Human Services.
Acknowledgment: We thank the members of the technical expert panel for this AHRQ article: Gillian D. Sanders, PhD, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, William T. Abraham, MD, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, and Mary Nix, MS, MT(ASCP), AHRQ, who provided direction for the scope and content of the review. We also thank our librarians, Carol Friesen, MA, MLIS, and Tamara Durec, BSc, MLIS, University of Alberta Evidence-based Practice Center, Edmonton, Alberta, and the external reviewers who submitted written comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript: David Atkins, MD, MPH, AHRQ, Eric Fain, MD, St Jude Medical, Sunnyvale, Calif, Martin Fromer, MD, Centre Hospitalier Universtaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland, Gordon Moe, MS, MD, FRCPC, Heart Failure Program and Biomarker Laboratory, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Robert F. Rea, MD, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minn, John Spertus, MD, MPH, Cardiovascular Education and Outcomes Research, University of Missouri, Kansas City, Mo, Bob Thompson, MS, MA, Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, Minn, and Clyde W. Yancy, MD, Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Tex. No persons mentioned received any financial compensation outside of the baseline salary paid to employees of the University of Alberta Evidence-based Practice Center, which is supported by the AHRQ. Finally, we also thank William T. Abraham, MD, C. Leclerq, MD, and S. Cazeau, MD, for providing further information about their studies.