Author Contributions: Dr Chen had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Chen, Krumholz.
Acquisition of data: Krumholz.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Chen, Normand, Wang, Krumholz.
Drafting of the manuscript: Chen, Krumholz.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Normand, Wang.
Statistical analysis: Wang.
Obtained funding: Krumholz.
Study supervision: Chen, Normand, Krumholz.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Chen, Normand, Wang, and Krumholz reported that they develop and maintain performance measures under contract with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Dr Normand reported receiving consulting fees from Yale University. Dr Krumholz reported that he chairs a cardiac scientific advisory board for United Healthcare and is the recipient of a research grant from Medtronic Inc through Yale University.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Career Development Award (1K08HS018781-01) for Dr Chen and a National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute (NHLBI) Cardiovascular Outcomes Center Award (U01HL105270-01) for Drs Chen, Normand, Wang, and Krumholz.
Role of the Sponsor:The funding sources did have a role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Online-Only Material: The Author Video Interview is available here.
Additional Contributions: We appreciate the assistance of Brian Merry, MPH, for his construction of the figures. Mr Merry is an employee of the Yale-New Haven Hospital Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation; he did not receive additional compensation beyond his salary.